Chapter 6

Report
Chapter 6
Sausage
Chapter 6 Objectives
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Understand the role of sausages in culinary history
Identify necessary ingredients for sausages
Explain the importance of proper equipment
selection, care, and use in making sausages
Classify various types of sausage
Discuss fermented sausages and their manufacture
Chapter 6 Objectives
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Describe the process of making basic grind
sausages
Contrast the basic process with the procedure for
emulsion sausages
Recognize the value of testing
Distinguish suitable garnishes for sausages
Clarify the various types of sausage shaping options
and preparation methods for each type
The History of Sausage
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The word sausage comes from the Latin word
“salus” meaning “salted”
The earliest sausages were created in ancient Rome
and Greece
Roman soldiers traveled with sausages and
introduced sausages to other parts of Europe
By the Middle Ages, regional forms of sausage
began to evolve into definite and unique forms all
over Europe
Sausage Ingredients
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Sausages are made by grinding raw meats with salt
and spices
This mixture is then stuffed into natural or
synthetic casings
The first casings were made from intestines,
stomachs, and other animal parts
Main Ingredient
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Generally, sausage is made from tougher cuts of
meat from the leg or the shoulder
The more exercised the muscle, the more highly
developed the flavor
Meats for sausage should be trimmed and cut into
dice or strips
When pork liver is called for in a sausage recipe, cut
it into cubes before grinding
The seasonings or cure mix are tossed together with
the meat before grinding
Main Ingredient
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Sausages in this chapter are made from:
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Pork
Veal
Lamb
Beef
Venison
Pheasant
Chicken
Turkey
Certified Pork
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Certified pork is pork that has been treated in a way
that destroys the pathogens responsible for
trichinosis
Pork sausages that undergo lengthy smoking or
drying procedures but aren’t cooked must be made
with certified pork
Preparing Certified Pork
Minimum Temperature
Minimum Freezing and
Holding Time
5°F/10ºC
20 days
-10°F/-23ºC
12 days
-20°F/-29ºC
6 days
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Pack pork in containers to a depth of 6 inches
Fat
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25 – 30% fat is the preferred average in a sausage
Fat used in contemporary forcemeats:
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Pork jowl fat
Pork fatback
Heavy cream
Seasonings and Cure Mixes
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Salt (ordinary table, kosher, or sea salt)
Sausages that will be cold or dry smoke must have
nitrate or a nitrite-nitrate combination (like Prague
Powder II)
Hot-smoked and fresh sausages do not require
nitrite
Sweeteners are added to mellow the sausage’s flavor
and make the finished product moister
Spices
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Spices are added as whole toasted seeds, ground, or
in special blends like:
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Quatre épices
Pâté spice
Herbs
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Sausage formulas often call for dried herbs
Fresh herbs may be substituted for dry herbs
As a general rule, you will need about two to three
times more fresh herbs compared to dried herbs
Aromatics
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Many aromatic ingredients may be added to sausage
recipes including:
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Vegetables (usually cooked, added when cooled)
Wines
Citrus zest
Prepared sauces (Tabasco and Worcestershire)
Powdered onions and garlic
Stock
Vinegars (too much acid can give finished sausage a
grainy texture)
Equipment Selection, Care and Use
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Equipment:
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Electric meat grinders
Food processors
Choppers
Mixers
Sausage stuffers
Equipment Selection, Care and Use
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Use the following guidelines:
1. Make sure equipment is in excellent condition.
2. Make sure equipment is scrupulously clean before
setting to work.
3. Chill any part of the machine that comes into direct
contact with the sausage ingredients.
4. Choose the right tool for the job.
5. Assemble the grinder correctly.
Progressive Grinding
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The meat and/or fat is ground through a succession
of increasingly smaller plates
Progressive grinding gives a fine, even texture to the
forcemeat
Makes it easier for the grinder to process the meat
down to a fine grind
The meat and/or fat should be near 28° to 30°F so
that the meat grinds properly
Basic Grind Sausage
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Sausages have a medium to coarse texture
When left loose they are referred to as bulk
sausages
These sausages are made with the basic grind
method:
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Fresh sausages
Cooked sausages
Smoked and dried sausages that are later air-dried
Basic Grind Sausage
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Method:
1. Grind chilled and diced meats, as well as other
ingredients as required by recipe, to the desired texture
(meats should be 28° to 30°F).
2. Mix the ground sausage meat(s) on the first speed for 1
minute, then on the second speed for 15 to 30 seconds,
or until it becomes homogenous.
3. The sausage mixture is now ready to test, garnish, and
shape.
Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages
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Fermented sausages have a tangy flavor because of
the lactic acid that is produced during fermentation
Typically made of:
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Beef or pork
Water (60 to 70% of the weight of the meat)
Salt
Curing agents such as nitrate and nitrite
Sugars such as dextrose and sucrose
Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages
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It is vital to inhibit or eliminate the growth of
bacteria that can cause spoilage
When grinding, it is essential to keep the meat cold:
28° – 30°F and the fat 5° – 10°F
After grinding, the only step left is to stuff and
smoke the sausage if desired
While they age, keep the sausages in an
environment that is climate controlled; it is crucial
to maintain a proper humidity level
Dry and Semi-Dry Fermented Sausages
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The fermentation during the drying process
produces lactic and acetic acid, which lower the pH
level to between 4.6 and 5.2 for semi-dry sausages
and to a pH level between 5.0 and 5.3 for dry
sausages
Semi-dry sausages may lose 15% of their original
weight as they age
Dry sausage could lose up to 30%
The finished product should be brightly colored,
have a slight yeast flavor, and a smooth, slightly
chewy texture
Emulsion Sausages
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Made from a basic mixture referred to as 5-4-3
forcemeat, which reflects the ratio of ingredients:
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5 parts trimmed raw meat to
4 parts fat (pork jowl fat) to
3 parts water (in the form of ice) by weight
Emulsion Sausages
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Method:
1. Cure the meat and then grind through the fine die.
2. Grind the chilled fatback through the fine grinder die.
3. Chop together the ground meat and crushed ice and
process until the temperature drops to below 30°F/-1°C.
4. Add the ground fat to the meat when the temperature
reaches 40°F.
5. Add the nonfat dry milk (and any remaining
seasonings) when the temperature reaches between
45°F/7ºC and 50°F/10ºC. Continue to process the
forcemeat until it reaches 58°F/14°C.
Emulsion Sausages
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Testing the emulsion forcemeat:
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Wrap a 1-ounce portion of the forcemeat in plastic wrap
and poach it to the appropriate internal temperature
(145°F/63°C for fish, 150°F/66°C for pork, beef, veal,
lamb, and game, and 165°F/74°C for any item including
poultry and poultry liver). Taste and check for flavor,
seasoning, and consistency.
Sausage Shaping
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Loose or bulk: solid log in plastic wrap
Made into patties
Sausages in casings: natural or synthetic
See casing charts on page 247 of book for natural
casing sizes, lengths, and capacities
Preparing Natural Casings
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Method:
1. Rewind the casings and store covered in salt. Lay out
the casings and remove any knots. Form into bundles of
the required length.
2. Before using the casings, rinse them thoroughly in tepid
water, forcing the water through the casing to flush out
the salt.
3. Cut the casing into lengths if necessary (consult specific
recipes) and tie a bubble knot in one end of the casing.
Stuffing the Casing
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Method using a sausage stuffing machine:
1. Assemble and fill the sausage stuffer properly. Be sure
that all parts of the sausage stuffer that will come in
contact with the forcemeat are clean and chilled. Fill the
stuffer with the sausage meat, tamping it down well to
remove any air pockets.
2. Press the sausage into the prepared casing. Gather the
open end of the casing over the nozzle of the sausage
stuffer. Press the sausage into the casing.
3. Twist or tie the sausage into the appropriate shape.

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