Balance of power
Declining powers: Holy Roman Empire,
Poland-Lithuania, Ottoman Empire
Rising powers: Habsburg Austria, Prussia,
Map Link: Europe in 1648:
Independence of rulers and weak imperial
Independent states: Dutch Republic, Swiss
Potential for strong new states
Map Link: The Holy Roman Empire, 1648:
1386 Unification of Commonwealth of
Elected king
Decentralised government
Nobles and serfs
Map Link: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648:
1529 Ottomans attack Vienna
Diverse population
Weak central control
Map Link: Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683:
1663 Ottomans advance into Holy Roman
Empire. Opposed by alliance that forces
truce in 1664
1683 Ottomans attack Vienna
1684 Holy League relieves Vienna. Then takes
much of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia
from Turks (1686-87 and following years)
Map Link: Growth of the Habsburg Dominions:
1415 Hohenzollerns take control of Brandenburg
1618 Hohenzollerns inherit E. Prussia
1648 Gain much of E. Pomerania
1701 Frederick III of Brandenburg-Prussia
recognised by Holy Roman Emperor as King of
Prussia (Frederick I of Prussia, r. 1688-1713)
Map Link: Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia:
1480 Ivan III (r. 1462-1505) throws off
Mongol control
1533-84 Reign of Ivan IV (“the Terrible”)
1598-1613 “Time of Troubles”
Map Link: Principality of Muscovy:
1613 Russian nobles elect Michael Romanov
as tsar (emperor, r. 1613-45)
1682 Peter the Great becomes tsar (r. 16821725)
Westernisation: dress, etiquette, technology,
administration and government,
Taking control of Russian Orthodox Church
Founding Saint Petersburg
Map Link: Russia under Peter the Great:
The War of the Spanish Succession (1702-13):
1700 Death of Charles II of Spain
(r. 1665-1700)
Louis XIV
Prince Charles of Austria
1700-46 Reign of Philip V of Spain
England, Dutch Republic, Austria, Prussia,
Portugal vs. France, Spain, Bavaria
1713-14 Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt
Map Link: Europe 1714:
Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de Saint-Simon
Soldier, writer of Mémoires
Opposed policy of Louis XIV
Associate of Louis of Bourgogne (d. 1712) and
Philippe II of Orléans (d. 1723)

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