FRENCH REVOLUTION

Report
AREA OF STUDY ONE
KIEREN PROWSE
ST COLUMBA’S
COLLEGE ESSENDON
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To gain an understanding of:
What is French Revolution Area of Study One
How can I best prepare myself to succeed
What I need to know to succeed
5 top tips for success
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Dates:
1781 Jacque Necker’s Compte Rendu
4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium
Phrygian Bonnet
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http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/vce/studies/history/history-sd.pdf
Begin page 130
Area of Study One – French Revolution
An understanding of the ‘Revolutionary Ideas, Movements,
Leaders and Events.
Key knowledge:
- Chronology of events (timeline)
- Causes of tensions and conflict (why did the people want
change)
- Revolutionary ideas (ideas that suggested change from current
system)
- Key Leaders (how did individuals develop ideas for change)
- Movements (where did the ‘energy’ for change come from)
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Key skills:
Recall key dates with accuracy.
Have full awareness of the causes of tensions and conflicts of the
Ancien Regime.
Ability to analyse and interpret images/documents/text.
‘Synthesize evidence to develop a coherent argument’
(Understand how one event/idea/leader/movement influence
another and be able to link them together.
Have knowledge of and be able to use a variety of Historian’s
opinions to support your response to a question.
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Depends on your definition of success?
Understanding number 1: You do not have to
know everything about everything. 3 or 4 things
about everything.
Document your reading and knowledge. Summary
Book and Quote Book.
Question everything you read. Ask yourself why?
Have the right resources. 2 print resources for
France.
Ask questions, search for answers, understand
different interpretations of events.
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King Louis XIV
King Louis XV
King Louis XVI
Divine right monarchy
Versailles
Taxation system
The Three Estates (Church, Nobles, the
rest)
Marie Antoinette
The enlightenment and the Philosophes
Montesquieu
Voltaire
Rousseau
Diderot
Physiocrats
American War of Independence
La Fayette
Compte Rendu
Jacques Necker
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Charles – Alexander de Calonne
Archbishop Brienne
Aristocratic Revolt/Assembly of Notables
Parlements
Royal Session (Seance Royale) 19 November
1787
Day of Tiles
Pamphlet war
Abbe Sieyes
Cahiers de Doleances
Society of Thirty
Estates-General (great detail needed here)
Formation of National Assembly
Tennis Court Oath
Royal session 23 June 1789
Fall of the Bastille
Municipal revolt
Great Fear
4th August 1789 – Night of Patriotic Delirium
Marxist Historians views
Revisionist Historians views
Liberal Historians views
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France in 1781
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France in August 1789
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Louis XVI power and control
= high
People power = low
Restlessness for change =
Moderate
Louis power = decreased
People power = increased
Restlessness for change =
significantly increased
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Divine Right Absolute
Monarchy King Louis XVI
3 Estates
Large rural peasantry
France involved in numerous
wars prior to 1780’s
Royal court moved to
Versailles (20km from centre
of Paris)
Louis’ finances were in
disarray.
To secure more funding
Financial controller Jacques
Necker was forced to publish
the Compte Rendu et Roi.
‘The king of France needed no coronation. He reigned by
the grace of God from the moment his predecessor breathed
his last, and a coronation was purely customarý.’Doyle, P.1
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28 Million people in 1780.
First Estate : Clergy. 0.6% population.
170,000 people approx. Privileged
taxation status. 10%land ownership
France, 25% property ownership in Paris.
Second Estate: Nobility. 0.4% of
population. 125,000 people approx.
Privileged taxation status. 33% land
ownership France.
Third Estate:Everybody else: Peasants,
urban factory workers, artisans,
bourgeoisie, merchants. 99% of
population. No taxation privileges.
Tax burden met nearly entirely by the
third estate
Those least able to afford taxes expected
to pay the most.
The poverty of many and the grievances of nearly all
French peasants were much aggravated by their
liability for taxes from which noble landowners might
well be immune…’Hibbert, P.30
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Absolute Monarchy
gone. Louis has made
some concessions.
Feudal privileges gone
(almost)
Louis’ military control
significantly weakened
Popular power breeding
and strengthening
Far less secure place for
a Monarch to be.
Les
Invalides
Ideas of ‘the Age of Enlightenment’.
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Voltaire
Critical of Catholic Church’s power.
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Rousseau
‘Noble Savage’’….’The General
Will’….’Social Contract’……
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Montesqieu
Separation of powers between Monarch
and state
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Diderot
Encyclopedie – direct public opinion on
matters of importance in society.
Economics, religion, agriculture.
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Ideas of Liberty, Equality and
democracy emanating from the
French involvement in the American
Revolutionary War.
LaFayette
Rousseau
Voltaire
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King had 6 ministers
in his cabinet.
Generally courteous
and obliging to the
Louis.
Venal offices
Absolute monarchy
Political corruption
(positions granted by
birth not merit).
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39 differing Generalities
or provinces for
taxation.
13 unequal legal zones
18 different legal zones
Adcock P. 9
Louis had no way of
knowing how much tax
he was meant to be
collecting!
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War of Polish
Succession (1733-1738)
War of Polish
Succession (1740-1748)
Seven Years War
(1756-1763)
American War of
Independence (17751783)
Significant damage to
the royal treasury
LaFayette
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Massive gulf between
rich and poor
Small number of
wealthy who owned a
lot
Large number of poor
who owned little or
nothing.
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Necker
Swiss, Protestant, not
from Noble origin.
‘Compte Rendu au Roi’
Account of the King’s
finances
Hot topic of public
debate
Misleading: France was
in surplus not deficit.
Necker
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Calonne continued to spend.
Belief that lavish living of the
royals promotes confidence
in order to gain further
loans.
People now saw this as the
main source of financial
strain.
By 1786 France was spending
112 Million Livres more than
it was earning.
38% of France’s income was
being spent purely on
repaying interest from loans.
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Urgent reform of French Taxation
system needed.
Simplify confusing taxation system
with the removal of many taxes and
removal fiscal privilege. Ask
wealthier estates to contribute to tax
burden.
Single land tax on all land holders
with no exemptions
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‘It certainly took Louis XVI several
months to understand it (tax
changes) and authorize its
implementation.’Doyle P.68-69.
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‘The system of privilege alone
infects everything, harms
everything and prevents any
improvements’
‘Such a state is inevitably an
imperfect kingdom’
‘agriculture is crushed by
overwhelming burdens and the
state’s finances impoverished’
Calonne, cited in Fenwick and
Anderson P.31
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King’s laws needed to
be passed by the
Parlement
This unusual new
land tax law could be
unpopular with many
Seek support through
rarely used ‘Assembly
of Notables’
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22 February 1787
144 deputies mostly
aristocratic
Notables feeling
pressure from growing
bourgeosie
Calonne unpopular
Calonne’s motives
appeared suspicious
Necker producing 10m
surplus in 1781,
Calonne 115m deficit by
1786???
‘He (Calonne) totally
miscalculated the forces he had
let loose, and how to handle
them.’Doyle P.70
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Huge recent spending on public
works and royal residences to
reassure creditors???
Calonne argued well
Most changes were accepted in
principal
Stumbling block: Removal of
fiscal privilege.
Resolution: No changes without
public scrutiny of Royal
financial accounts
Calls in the provinces grew
louder for the Estates General to
be convened as the only body
Lack of consensus meant Louis
dismissed Calonne and
appointed Brienne.
Assembly dissolved May 1787.
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Estates General: Meeting of the
nation, where all estates
(groups) in society would be
represented in order to decide
on an issue on National
importance. Last convened in
1614.
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July 1787, Brienne modifies Calonne’s tax
plan but maintains direct land tax on all.
Bypasses Assembly of Notables and
lodges them with the Parlement of Paris 2
July 1787.
Parlements full of Nobles and
increasingly demonstrative in recent
years
Parlement rejects plans and declares that
Estates General is only body capable of
passing such laws.
6 August 1787 Louis attempts to impose
Royal Power through a lit de justice.
Louis orders exile of Parlement to Troyes.
Huge rise in popluar agitation towards
the monarchy. Increase in governmental
and popular protests, dempnstrations
and pamphlets.
Compromise by September: Parlement
recalled if Brienne modifies tax plan.
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‘Without the consent of the people, the
Parlement would not consent to
registration of the edicts.’ Fenwick and
Anderson P.38
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19 November 1787
Brienne hopes the King’s prescence will
be enough for the Parlement to approve
changes to laws.
King snaps and orders the edicts be
registered.
Stalemate until 3 May 1788 when
Parlement issues ‘Fundamental laws of
the realm’ declaring that the Estates
General were the only body capable of
issuing new tax laws among other things.
Louis responded with the near botched
arrest of the Magistrates and imposed his
absolute rule.
Provincial Parlements refused to yield.
Grenoble 10 June 1788, people tore off
roof tiles and pelted soldiers who were
arriving to arrest the Magistrates of the
Parlement.
Massive protests insued, anti monarchy
and government pamphlets were
produced in their hundreds. The price of
bread had risen and crops were looking
poor.
http://coloriages.dessins.free.fr/wordpress/?p=11756
Date accessed: 01/08/2012
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‘Brienne was close to victory, when the King,
misunderstanding the situation, ordered the
Parlement to register the laws. The Parlement,
stunned, registered the laws, but after the King’s
departure, they cancelled them all.’ Adcock P.51
‘The King’s words turned what seemed to be a
government triumph into a disaster’. Doyle cited
in Fenwick and Anderson P.39
‘Within a week, the country was in uproar’.
Fenwick and Anderson P. 40
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Louis was running out of
solutions to the protesting and
rioting.
Louis had ‘enough money for
the government to function for
one afternoon’ (Schama cited in
Fenwick and Anderson, P. 41.)
Massive Hailstorm on July 13
1789 destroyed much of the
grain harvest in the Parisian
basin.
Widespread discontent and no
money resulted in Louis
relenting and officially calling
for the Estates General for 1
May 1789.
Brienne resigns 24 August and
is replaced by the recalled and
popular Necker.
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Brienne describes Necker as ‘the
only man I know who can
restore the confidence of the
people’. Fenwick and Anderson
P.41.
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1614
Each estate has equal deputies (300)
Each issue for discussion is
discussed in separate room by
order.
Voting is by order: Result will be
determined by 3 votes.
25 September 1788 Parlement
declare 1614 regulations will be
enforced for 1789 meeting.
Overnight Parlement loses
popularity and public opinion
becomes outraged.
Public demand is for doubling of the
deputies for the third estate,
meeting in common rooms and
voting by head, not by order. Issues
to be resolved by 1200 votes.
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5 December 1788: King announces
his decision: Doubling of the third
estate deputies but did not declare
on the issue of voting.
Elections for deputies begun and
drawing up of Cahiers (grievences)
got under way.
Thousands of political pamphlets
were produced up to April 1789.
Abbe Sieyes ‘What is the Third
Estate?’.
Usefulness in society had been
misunderstood. Third estate seen as
nothing, but they should be seen as
‘everything’.
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‘What is the Third Estate?
Everything
What had it been before in the
political order? Nothing
What does it demand? To become
something therein.’ Sieyes cited in
Fenwick and Anderson P. 44
‘A law not made by the people is no
law at all.’ Sieyes cited in Fenwick
and Anderson P.45.
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2 May 1789
Deputies received by
Louis
4 May 1789
Procession to and
celebration of Mass at
church of St. Louis in
Versailles.
Strict social distinctions
were observed.
Order and entrance of
reception for Louis.
Clothing
Procession to church
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‘The more brilliantly the
first two orders
swaggered, the more they
alienated the Third Estate
and provoked it into
exploding the institution
all together.’ Schama cited
in Fenwick and Anderson
P. 73
‘The Queen received not a
single acclamation.’
Hibbert, cited in Fenwick
and Anderson P.73
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13 June 1789: 3 members of
the clergy join the Third
Estate in their meeting room.
More clergy cross over to
Third on 14 June 1789.
17 June 1789 Third Estate
declare themselves the
National Assembly.
Louis had not intervened in
discussion for the previous
weeks as he was in
mourning for the death of his
7 year old son, Louis Joseph,
who died on June 4.
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‘The Dauphin’s funeral was
said to have cost 600k livres.’
Fenwick and Anderson P.77
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19 June, Clergy vote to
officially join the
National Assembly.
20 June: Meeting hall
locked: Move to next
nearest large enough
venue, Royal Tennis
Court.
There the deputies of
the new National
Assembly swore an
oath to never disband
until France had a
constitution
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23 June 1789 – Séance Royale
King orders National
Assembly to disband but
gives some concessions then
orders deputies to retire and
reform the following day.
24 June 1789: Troops loyal to
Louis join the Assembly
25 June 1789: 47 liberal
nobles, including Duc
dÓrleans (Kings cousin) join
the assembly
27 June 1789: Louis orders
voting by head and
deliberations in common
after he is warned of massive
protest from Paris.
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‘Go and tell those who have sent
you that we are here by the will
of the Nation, and we will only
go if we are driven out by
Bayonettes!’Mirabeau cited in
Fenwick and Anderson P. 79
‘They mean to stay!....Well, then,
damn it! Let them stay!’Louis
XVI cited in Fenwick and
Anderson P.79
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26 June and 1 July 1789: Troops
loyal to Louis enter Paris, a
violent suppression seems
likely.
10 July: Louis refuses to remove
troops from Paris
11 July: Necker is dismissed
Sunday 12 July: Paris erupts.
Desmoulins call to arms at the
Palais Royal incites looting,
protesting, confrontations with
army
13 July: Parisian officials form
Paris Commune in order to
attempt to quell rioting
Desmoulins
‘To arms, to arms and let us take the
green cockade, the colour of hope…. Yes
it is I who call my brothers to freedom; I
would rather die than submit to
servitude.’ Desmoulins cited in Schama,
Citizens P.382
‘During that single night of largely
unobstructed riot and demolition, Paris
was lost to the Monarchy.’ Schama,
Citizens P. 387
http://francofilesfunfacts.blogspot.com.au/2009/07/camille-desmoulins-incites.html
Accessed on 01/08/12
Palais Royal (front view)
Palais Royal (rear garden)
Palais Royal (Garden out back)
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Built on Eastern side of
Paris to defend it from the
English in the 14th century.
Later years turned into a
prison for wealthier
prisoners.
Conditions were very
good for a prison of that
time, but developed a
reputation for torture and
despotism due to the
literary works being
produced inside its walls
by prisoners
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Morning of 14 July; protestors attack
les invalides to retreive weapons.
Gun powder is believed to be at the
Bastille. Protestors arrived mid
morning and were denied entry by
Governer de Launay.
Protestors were received by de
Launay but no compromised was
reached.
Protestors breached walls and
firefight ensued.
Up to 100 protestors killed.
Accounts vary.
de Launay captured and summarily
executed by the mob after a
confrontation with a butcher named
Desnot, his head was severed from
his body and placed on a pike and
paraded around the city.
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‘Rien.’Louis XVI diary
entry on July 14 1789.
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http://forum.alexanderpalace.org/index.php?topic=6320.45
Date accessed: 01/08/12
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http://www.last.fm/group/'pataphysics/fo
rum/106396/_/480734/2
Date accessed: 31/7/12
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15 July: Louis attends National
Assembly with only his two
brothers for support. Confirms
withdrawal of troops from Paris.
Conservative Nobility begin
emigration to other nations fostering
privileges societies. Become known
as the emigres. Comte dÁrtois
leaves July 16.
National Guard formed to protect
the property of wealthy citizens led
by Marquis de Lafayette
July 17: Louis is escorted to Hotel de
Ville to reaffirm his promises of 15
July. He receives and wears the
Revolutionary cockade and is
acclaimed by the crowd!
Hotel de Ville – Town Hall
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News of the fall of the Bastille was
greeted with joy around France.
Other urban centres attacked grain
stores and tax offices.
Beginning with the drafting of the
Cahiers, many peasants had simply
stopped paying their feudal dues.
Fear and speculation spread
throughout country side….Would
Louis retaliate?
Brigands, foreign armies, King’s
militia, were roaming the rural areas
of France for retribution.
Peasants struck first. Attacking the
chateau and manor houses,
removing and destroying evidence
linking them to their dues.
Fires in villages sparked fear that
retaliation was on its way.
http://www.dipity.com/amaraxmarie/French_Revolution/
Date accessed: 01/08/12
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News of disturbances
delayed in reaching the
Assembly.
Progressive members
suggested forfeiting their
feudal dues to quell
uprisings.
Became an bidding war
Venal offices removed,
equal taxation accepted,
privileges were no more.
All privileges not
removed fully until 1792.
‘a moment of patriotic
drunkenness.’Schama cited in
Fenwick and Anderson P.88
http://www.unet.univie.ac.at/~a0100238/warum.htm
Accessed on 01/08/12
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Texts:
Adcock, Michael; Analysing the
French Revolution, 2nd Edition.
Cambridge University Press, Port
Melbourne, 2009.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History
of the French Revolution. 2nd
Edition. Oxford University Press,
New York, 2002.
Fenwick, Jill and Anderson, Judy;
Liberating France. HTAV,
Melbourne, 2010.
Hibbert, Christopher. The French
Revolution. Penguin Books, London,
1980.
McPhee, Peter. The French
Revolution; 1789-1799. Oxford
University Press, New York, 2002.
Schama, Simon. Citizens; A
Chronicle of the French Revolution.
Penguin Books, London, 2004.
Images:
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Photos are authors own.
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Images have been sourced from
Wikimedia Commons
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/
Main_Page
All other images have been referenced in
the presentation.
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These materials are to be used for the
purpose of individual study only. Some
materials may be subject to copyright
under the Copyright Act 1968. All
reasonable attempts have been made to
trace copyright holders for permission to
use materials but the presenter invites
anyone who believes they have copyright
over items to contact him if they have any
concerns.
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1. Read numerous
sources of information
2. Hand write your
notes as you go along
(summary book).
3. Question what you
read and your teacher.
4. Collect quotes on
topics
5. Practice responses
before SACs or exams.
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Good Luck!!!
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Less of this…

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