EXPECTED LEARNING: To understand how autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiency disorders effect the immune system What is an Autoimmune Disease? Our immune systems are designed to be able to tell the difference between self and non-self, but sometimes the immune system can make a mistake. When this happens, the immune system attacks a healthy part of the body because it thinks it is a pathogen and is harmful, even though it isn't. This is called autoimmunity; "auto" means "self", so "autoimmunity" is an immune response against itself. When an autoimmune reaction does harm the body it is called an autoimmune disease. The Immune System Your immune system is not located in one place of your body, but rather is a network of cells, tissues, and organs, that protect your body from "invaders” which are usually Pathogens. Pathogens are disease producing agents such as bacteria, parasites, fungi, and viruses that can cause infections. Your body is an ideal environment for many of these pathogens. It is the job of your immune system to keep them out, or if they enter, to seek them out and destroy them – T cells. How does it impact the Immune System? An Autoimmune disease turns the immune system against itself. Depending on the type of autoimmune disease, affects which part of the body is being targeted. Some of the symptoms of an autoimmune disease are: •Tiredness •Depression •Sensitivity to cold •Weight gain •Muscle weakness and cramps •Dry hair •Tough skin •Constipation 2 general types of autoimmune diseases There are over 80 different autoimmune diseases and they can be categorised into two general types: Localised – organ specific affecting mainly one particular part of the body • Crohn’s disease • Addison’s disease Systemic – affecting multiple parts of the body • Connective tissue disease • Inflammation in blood vessels Self and non-self A healthy immune system is able to tell the difference between your cells – “self”, from an invader's cells – “non-self”. Both have markers, distinguishing them as self and non-self. When a healthy immune system recognizes the non-self markers, it launches an attack on them in an attempt to keep your body healthy. The autoimmune response occurs when something goes wrong in your immune system. Your immune system starts to attack your own cells - self rather than non-self. Crohn’s disease – an Autoimmune disease What is Crohn's disease? Crohn’s disease is a disease that causes inflammation, or swelling, and irritation of any part of the digestive tract. The part most commonly affected is the end part of the small intestine, called the ileum. Crohn’s disease effects these parts of the body Continued People who suffer from Crohn’s disease often suffer from • painful abdominal cramping • frequent bowel movements • diarrhoea • general fatigue • Rectal bleeding and • weight loss. Crohn’s disease is considered an Autoimmune disease as it is the result of the immune system attacking the digestive tact which causes the inflammation, swelling and irritation. Bibliography • http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immuneSystem/pages/selfnonse lf.aspx • http://www.duq.edu/sepa/regmed/autoimmune/index.shtml • http://related.wisegeek.com/related/?kw=Crohn+S+Disease+S ymptoms&rt=ChBPtYZ4AAGeuwqkIcqN9k0_EhhDcm9obiBTIERpc 2Vhc2UgU3ltcHRvbXMaCLa8nVpxDub6KAEwAlITCIjn19i5iLACFY gfpAodqGtCmA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.wisegeek.com%2F what-is-crohns-disease.htm • http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/crohns/ What is an immunodeficiency disorder/disease? Immunodeficiency disorders occur when the body's immune response is reduced or absent. Basically saying that if the body has a virus the body has an inability to fight back against it as the immune system has a reduced response or it appears absent. First of all what is the immune system? Most of you should know by now what the immune system is but if I explain it now it will make it somewhat easier to explain how immunodeficiency disorders affect the immune system. The immune system is made up of lymphoid tissue in the body, which includes the bone marrow, lymph nodes, thymus, tonsils, and parts of the spleen and gastrointestinal tract. In addition, there are proteins and cells in the blood that are part of the immune system. The immune systems main functional purpose is to protect the body against antigens such as: bacteria, toxins, cancer cells ect… How does the immune system work? The immune system in short detects an antigen of some description which produce proteins called antibodies to fight back and defend the body against antigens. Which then leads us to immunodeficiency. Immunodeficiency occurs when the immune system does not fight back against harmful substances like it should. It can occur in any part of the immune system and generally happens when B or T lymphocytes don’t work as efficiently as they should and don’t produce enough antibodies to protect the body. Immunodeficiency can be developed from two different aspects. Inherited: Inherited immunodeficiency that effect the B cells and the most common disorders that result from this are: Hypogammaglobulinemia, which usually causes respiratory and gastrointestinal infections Agammaglobulinemia, which results in frequent severe infections early in life, and is often deadly Inherited immunodeficiency disorders that affect T cells may cause increased susceptibility to fungi, resulting in recurring yeast infections. Inherited combined immunodeficiency affects both T cells and B cells. It may be deadly within the first year of life if it isn't treated early. SPECIFIC OR NON-SPECIFIC? Immunodeficiency doesn’t specifically target any one area of the body it can occur anywhere and to any area or organ as the body can develop illness through various aspects. Acquired immunodeficiency may be a complication of diseases such as HIV infection and malnutrition (particularly with a lack of protein). Many cancers may also cause immunodeficiency. Acquired immunodeficiency then leads to talk about HIV or aids which is one of the most common forms of an immunodeficiency disorder where the bodies immune system simply shuts down its defensive mechanisms. B cell: A type of white blood cell and, specifically, a type of lymphocyte. Many B cells mature into what are called plasma cells that produce antibodies (proteins) necessary to fight off infections while other B cells mature into memory B cells. B cells work in co-ordination as whilst one set may produce antigens in order to fight off infection or bacteria whilst the other set recall if the body has already suffered from a specific virus that allows it to have a more efficient reaction to defend the body. T cell: A type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body's immune response to specific pathogens. The T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders. HIV also known as human immunodeficiency virus which is apart of the group of viruses known as retroviruses. Retrovirus is a virus composed not DNA but RNA that can transcribe their RNA to DNA after entering a cell so it works in reverse. Once the HIV virus has entered the body it then proceeds to damage and destroy the cells of the immune system whilst the body continues to produce more cells eventually the virus wins and the bodies ability to fight infections and diseases is progressively lower. Once the HIV virus has destroyed so many of the bodies healthy immune system cells this then leads to AIDS which is known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This is where there are virtually no healthy immune cells left to fight disease or infection so the body is susceptible for any infections even a small cold could kill them. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhQlpeDgYCg&feature=related YOU HAVE AIDS. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-xK7hPQMF8 I HAVE AIDS. -Peter and quartet singYou have aids. Yes you have aids. I hate to tell 'ya boy that you have aids. You've got the aids. You may have got it when you stuck that filthy needle in here. Or maybe all that unprotected sex what you hear,it isnt clear. But what we're certain of is you have aids. Yes you have aids. Not HIV but full blown aids. Be sure that you see that this is not HIV. But full blown aids. I really mean it yes its full blown aids. Im sorry i wish it was somthing less serious. But its aids.