Spanish-American War

Spanish-American War
Essential Question
 What were the causes and effects of the Spanish-
American War?
Cubans Rebel Against Spanish Rule
 By 1897 American businessmen had invested $50
million in Cuban business ventures
 Cuba is only 90 miles off the coast of Florida and was
a colony of Spain
Jose Marti
 Cuban patriot who led a revolt in 1895 to “Free
Rebel forces used guerilla warfare and hit & run
raids against the Spanish
Spanish deprived rebels of food and recruits
American property was destroyed
Americans worried about their economic interests in
Yellow Press
 Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst
increased American dislike for the Spanish
 They were referred to as yellow press because their
newspapers contained a popular comic strip with a
character called “The Yellow Kid”
 To sell papers they exaggerated Spanish atrocities
and compared Cuban Rebels to American Colonists
America Steps In
 Spain refused to grant Cuban independence
 McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana Harbor to
protect Americans in Cuba
 Hearst published a private (leaked Letter) written by
Spain’s ambassador to DC calling McKinley weak
and stupid
 Letter fueled American jingoism (aggressive
“Remember the Maine”
 Feb. 15, 1898, an explosion tore through the hull of
the USS Maine as it was docked at Havana Harbor
 266 American sailors were killed
 The US blamed Spain…initial investigation blamed a
mine, follow-up investigations had doubts; official
cause unknown
 US Patriots urged their fellow Americans to
“Remember the Maine”
McKinley Reacts
 April 1898 Congress sent Navy to blockade Cuban
ports and called for more than 100,000 volunteers in
the Army
 This prompted Spain to declare war on the United
 200,000 enlisted!
Dewey Takes The Philippines
 May 1st, 1898 Commodore George Dewey sailed into
Manila Bay in the Spanish controlled Philippines
 Americans surprised and destroyed the Spanish fleet
docked in the bay
Emilio Aguinaldo
 Led Filipino revolt against Spanish on land
 U.S. sent 15,000 troops to help and the Spanish
U.S. Forces Win In Cuba
 June 1898 Americans land in Cuba
 U.S. Marines had already captured Guantanamo Bay
 Army headed to Santiago
Conditions for a U.S. Soldier
 Poorly trained
 Equipped with obsolete weapons
 Heavy wool uniforms to fight in Cuba!
 Corrupt officials
 Given contaminated/rotted food
 General Shafter went to Santiago with national guard
units, African-American 9th &10th cavalry regiments,
and Teddy Roosevelt’s Rough Riders
TR’s Rough Riders
 Made up of rugged westerners and upper class
 Famous Battle: San Juan Hill
 Goal: Secure high ground around Santiago
 Result: 2 days later Spanish tried to flee, but were
forced to surrender
Effects of War
 3000 Americans died
 380 in combat
 The rest from disease (malaria & yellow fever)
 Pretty easy victory for Americans
 Dilemma: What to do with new Spanish holdings?
 Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam
Treaty of Paris
 Signed by Spain & U.S. in 1898 to officially end the
 Spain gave up Cuba, Puerto Rico & Guam
 Spain sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million
 Teller Amendment prevented U.S. from keeping
Cuba, but what should the U.S. do with the
 Anti-Imperialists wanted to grant Filipinos their
 Imperialist wanted to keep the Philippines
Educate, uplift, and civilize them
Another country would just take them over again without U.S.
Valuable stepping stone to trade with China
New Role of The U.S.
 As a result of the Spanish-American War, U.S.
gained an empire and became a global power
 The war was a turning point for American foreign

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