Canada`s Landforms - Grand Erie District School Board

Report
Canada’s Landforms
Landforms
 The underlying geology is vitally important because it
determines a region’s landform.
 Ex. Mountains or plains
 Determines structure
 Glaciation is important because it happened so recently (in
geologic terms 15 000 years ago)
 Glaciation provides detail Ex. amount of soil, drainage pattern and hills
and flat areas
The Creation of Canada’s Landforms
 Tectonic forces
 Erosion
 Land building
 Sediments
 Glaciation
Tectonic Forces
• Volcanoes, collision of plates that create new mountain ranges.
Volcanic activities create new igneous rocks that form from
cooled magma/lava (liquid rock)
Erosion
 Land is worn away by the forces of erosion
 These forces break down rock and move it to a location that is
usually at a lower elevation.
 Erosion results from the action of moving water, freezing and
melting water, wind, glaciers, precipitation, and chemical actions
such as water on limestone or the effects of acid rain.
Land Building
 Constant conflict
between forces that
build the land higher
and those that wear it
down.
 When the former is
more active, the land
will rise
 When erosional forces
are more active, the
land will wear down
Sediments
 Eroded Sediments will
eventually become
sedimentary rock. The
creation occurs most often in
the ocean but can occur on
land.
 The tremendous weight of the
accumulated sediments causes
the lower layers of sediments
to compress into rock.
Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks
 Both igneous and
sedimentary rock can be
changed into various
kids of metamorphic
rock when they are
exposed to great heat
and pressure under
earth’s surface.
The Rock Cycle
Rock Cycle
Glaciation
 The effects of glaciation are
central to the appearance and
structure of Canada’s
landforms, not because the
power of the glaciers was so
overwhelming, but because
glaciation occurs very recently
in geologic time.
How do Landforms differ in various
parts of Canada?
 Page 126-129 (green textbook)
 Look at the artists representation of the Canadian Landscape
 What forces are responsible for these difference?
 How are the characteristics of the landform regions related
to how people use the land?
Landform Regions in Canada
Questions:
1. What is a landform
region? Use your
own words.
2. How many
landform regions
are there in Canada?
3. Which landform
Region do you live?
4. Describe the
landform region in
which you live.
Pg. 134-141 (green)
102-115 (white)
Canada’s Landform Regions
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Canadian Shield
Great Lakes and St Lawrence
Lowlands
Interior Plains (light yellow)
Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands
(bright yellow)
Appalachian Mountains
Innuition Mountains
Western Cordillera
WESTERN CORDILLERA (BLUE)
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Western
Cordillera
WESTERN CORDILLERA
 Mountains
 Formed through tectonic
activity (convergence)
 Young Mountains-pointed and
jagged with steep slopes
 Vegetation-covered with
coniferous trees, decreased in
size with increased elevation
 Human Activity-logging and
mining
INTERIOR PLAINS
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Interior Plains
INTERIOR PLAINS
 Low and flat land
 Fertile soil- good for
farming
 Created through
glacial scraping
 Mixture of wet and
dry areas
 Human Activities-Oil
exploration and
farming
HUDSON BAY AND ARCTIC LOWLANDS
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Hudson Bay
and Arctic
Lowlands
HUDSON BAY AND ARCTIC LOWLANDS
 Extremely low ground
 Very wet and boggy
 Very Cold
 Vegetation-tundra and
dwarf trees
 Human Activities- Trapping
and hunting
CANADIAN SHIELD
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Canadian
Shield
CANADIAN SHIELD
 The rock in the shield is




metamorphic rock, which makes
it a good source of minerals
Glacial scraping= very little top
soil
Vegetation- Coniferous trees and
hardy deciduous trees
Human Activities- Mining and
logging
More FRESHWATER LAKES
than anywhere else in the world
INNUITION MOUNTAINS
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Innuition
Mountains
INNUITION MOUNTAINS
 Young Mountains, but not as tall




as the Rockies
Very rugged and craggy
Cold but very dry= arctic desert
Vegetation-tundra
Human Activities-few people=
subsistence activities *hunting
and gathering that allow people
to survive
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Appalachian
Mountains
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS
 Low, old mountains



worn by erosion
None are snow capped
Gentle rolling hills
Completely covered by
vegetation
Human Activitieslivestock farming and
urban enterprises
GREAT LAKES AND ST LAWRENCE
LOWLANDS
 There are 7 major landform regions in Canada
Great Lakes
and St.
Lawrence
Lowlands
GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE
LOWLANDS
 Carved out by glaciers
 Very fertile soil
 Low, gently rolling
landscapes
 Vegetation-Carolinian
forest= deciduous forest
 Human Activities-specialty
farming and urban
enterprises
 The Largest cities in Canada
are found in the GL&SL
Lowlands.

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