Canada’s Landforms Landforms The underlying geology is vitally important because it determines a region’s landform. Ex. Mountains or plains Determines structure Glaciation is important because it happened so recently (in geologic terms 15 000 years ago) Glaciation provides detail Ex. amount of soil, drainage pattern and hills and flat areas The Creation of Canada’s Landforms Tectonic forces Erosion Land building Sediments Glaciation Tectonic Forces • Volcanoes, collision of plates that create new mountain ranges. Volcanic activities create new igneous rocks that form from cooled magma/lava (liquid rock) Erosion Land is worn away by the forces of erosion These forces break down rock and move it to a location that is usually at a lower elevation. Erosion results from the action of moving water, freezing and melting water, wind, glaciers, precipitation, and chemical actions such as water on limestone or the effects of acid rain. Land Building Constant conflict between forces that build the land higher and those that wear it down. When the former is more active, the land will rise When erosional forces are more active, the land will wear down Sediments Eroded Sediments will eventually become sedimentary rock. The creation occurs most often in the ocean but can occur on land. The tremendous weight of the accumulated sediments causes the lower layers of sediments to compress into rock. Igneous and Sedimentary Rocks Both igneous and sedimentary rock can be changed into various kids of metamorphic rock when they are exposed to great heat and pressure under earth’s surface. The Rock Cycle Rock Cycle Glaciation The effects of glaciation are central to the appearance and structure of Canada’s landforms, not because the power of the glaciers was so overwhelming, but because glaciation occurs very recently in geologic time. How do Landforms differ in various parts of Canada? Page 126-129 (green textbook) Look at the artists representation of the Canadian Landscape What forces are responsible for these difference? How are the characteristics of the landform regions related to how people use the land? Landform Regions in Canada Questions: 1. What is a landform region? Use your own words. 2. How many landform regions are there in Canada? 3. Which landform Region do you live? 4. Describe the landform region in which you live. Pg. 134-141 (green) 102-115 (white) Canada’s Landform Regions There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Canadian Shield Great Lakes and St Lawrence Lowlands Interior Plains (light yellow) Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands (bright yellow) Appalachian Mountains Innuition Mountains Western Cordillera WESTERN CORDILLERA (BLUE) There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Western Cordillera WESTERN CORDILLERA Mountains Formed through tectonic activity (convergence) Young Mountains-pointed and jagged with steep slopes Vegetation-covered with coniferous trees, decreased in size with increased elevation Human Activity-logging and mining INTERIOR PLAINS There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Interior Plains INTERIOR PLAINS Low and flat land Fertile soil- good for farming Created through glacial scraping Mixture of wet and dry areas Human Activities-Oil exploration and farming HUDSON BAY AND ARCTIC LOWLANDS There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Hudson Bay and Arctic Lowlands HUDSON BAY AND ARCTIC LOWLANDS Extremely low ground Very wet and boggy Very Cold Vegetation-tundra and dwarf trees Human Activities- Trapping and hunting CANADIAN SHIELD There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Canadian Shield CANADIAN SHIELD The rock in the shield is metamorphic rock, which makes it a good source of minerals Glacial scraping= very little top soil Vegetation- Coniferous trees and hardy deciduous trees Human Activities- Mining and logging More FRESHWATER LAKES than anywhere else in the world INNUITION MOUNTAINS There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Innuition Mountains INNUITION MOUNTAINS Young Mountains, but not as tall as the Rockies Very rugged and craggy Cold but very dry= arctic desert Vegetation-tundra Human Activities-few people= subsistence activities *hunting and gathering that allow people to survive APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Appalachian Mountains APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS Low, old mountains worn by erosion None are snow capped Gentle rolling hills Completely covered by vegetation Human Activitieslivestock farming and urban enterprises GREAT LAKES AND ST LAWRENCE LOWLANDS There are 7 major landform regions in Canada Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE LOWLANDS Carved out by glaciers Very fertile soil Low, gently rolling landscapes Vegetation-Carolinian forest= deciduous forest Human Activities-specialty farming and urban enterprises The Largest cities in Canada are found in the GL&SL Lowlands.