World History - Dublin City Schools

Report
World History
Chapter 3
People and Ideas on
the Move
Let’s review our Standards
 SSWH1: The student will analyze
the origins, structures, and
interactions of complex societies in
the ancient Eastern Mediterranean
from3500 BCE to 500 BCE.
 SSWH2: The student will identify
the major achievements of Chinese
and Indian societies from 1100 BCE
to 500 CE.
Essential Questions
 What was the impact of religion on
the development of early societies?
 In what ways did the interaction of
early civilizations contribute to the
greater complexity of their
societies?
 What was the role of early
governments?
What will we learn?
 We will learn about:
 Monotheism
 Trading networks in Eastern
Mediterranean
 Importance of writing/Phoenician
Alphabet
 Impact of Hinduism and Buddhism on
India
 Diffusion of Buddhism
 Development of Chinese civilization
 Confucianism
Study the map on page 59
 Why did so many of the ancient
trade routes cross the seas?
 Sea travel was easier and faster
than overland travel.
 What routes of communication
existed between the Bay of
Bengal near India and Phoenicia
and Jerusalem in Southwest Asia?
 There were trade routes both by
land and sea.
Study the map on page 59
 How was the Arabian Peninsula
well situated to take part in world
trade?
 It was situated between Europe,
Asia, and Africa and functioned as
a crossroads.
Timeline Discussion
 Use the timeline at the bottom of pages
58-59 to answer the following
questions:
 1. How many years were there between
the Hittites migrations into Anatolia and
the Aryans invasion of India?
 2. What was happening in the Western
Hemisphere around the time the
Phoenicians began to dominate
Mediterranean trade?
Timeline Discussion
 3. What did the founding of Carthage
demonstrate about the Phoenicians?
 4. What two important events
happened in the sixth century B.C.?
Timeline Discussion
Answers
 #1. 500 years
 #2. The Olmec civilization was
emerging in what is now Mexico.
 #3. They were important traders for
close to 300 years.
 #4. Babylonians captured Jerusalem;
Zapotecs built Monte Alban in Mexico.
Chapter Preview
 Section One: The Indo Europeans
 Spread of Indo-Europeans & their language
 Hittite Empire & effects of technology
 Aryan invasion of India & new culture that
resulted
Section Two: Hinduism & Buddhism
develop
Origins, beliefs, and development of
Hinduism.
Origins, beliefs, and development of
Buddhism
Chapter Preview
 Section Three: Seafaring Traders
 Minoan civilization
 Contributions of the Phoenicians
 Extent and impact of ancient world trade
Section Four: The origins of Judaism
History & beliefs of ancient Hebrews
Historical & cultural importance of the Exodus
Israel under Saul, David and Solomon
Israel’s destruction & Hebrews exile in
Babylon
Who are the Indo-Europeans?
 A group of nomadic people who came
from the steppes or dry grasslands that
stretched north of the Caucasus
Mountains.
 These people are primarily pastoral who
herded cattle, sheep, and goats. They
also tamed horses and rode into battles on
light, two-wheeled chariots.
 They lived in tribes that spoke forms of a
language that we call Indo-European.
Why do so many languages originate
from the Indo-Europeans?
 So many Indo-Europeans were
ancestors of many of the modern
languages of Europe, Southwest
Asia, and South Asia.
 English, Spanish, Persian and
Hindi all trace their origins back
to different forms of the original
Indo-European language.
 Look at chart on page 61.
Indo-European Languages
English
Spanish
Persian
Hindi
Sanskrit
Greek
Who are the Hittites?
 A group of Indo-European speakers
who by about 2000 BC occupied
Anatolia, also called Asia Minor.
 Anatolia is a large peninsula in
modern day Turkey that juts out
into the Black and Mediterranean
Seas.
How did environmental features in
Anatolia help the Hittites advance
technologically?
 The Hittites excelled in the technology of
war.
 The Hittites were the first in Southwest
Asia to work with iron and harden it into
weapons.
 Iron ore and wood were easily accessible
to them in the mountains of Anatolia.
Who are the Aryans?
 An Indo-European people whose
homeland was probably somewhere
between the Caspian and Aral Seas.
 These people crossed over the
northwest mountain passes into the
Indus River Valley of India.
What are vedas?
 The Aryans left almost no archaeological
record, however their sacred literature,
the Vedas, left a picture of Aryan life.
 The Vedas are four collections of
prayers, magical spells, and
instructions for performing rituals.
 The most important is the Rig Veda,
a song book of 1028 hymns to Aryan
gods.
Aryan Caste System
 The Aryans were divided into
three social classes or castes:
Brahmins or priests
Warriors
Peasants or traders
What effects would a rigid caste
system have on an Aryan society?
 A rigid caste system:
 Would NOT allow intermarriage
between classes.
 Would make it IMPOSSIBLE to
change jobs.
 Would make it IMPOSSIBLE to
change social positions.
Great Epic of India
 Mahabbharata reflects the
struggles that took place in
India as the Aryans moved
south.
 Elements in the epic describe
the mixing of cultures between
the Aryans and non-Aryans.
What happened when Aryans and nonAryans began to intermingle religious
culture?
 The gods and forms of their
religions tended to blend
together.
 This blending resulted in the
worship of thousands of gods.
 Different ways of living and
different beliefs made life more
complex for both groups.
What is Hinduism? What are the
beliefs of those who practice this
religion?
 Hinduism is a collection of
religious beliefs that developed
slowly over a long period of time.
 Some beliefs of those who practice
Hinduism are:
 They share a common worldview.
 They see religion as a way of liberating
the soul from the illusions,
disappointments, and mistakes of
everyday existence.
What are the beliefs of those
who practice this religion?
 Those who practice this religion believe
in reincarnation (rebirth) whereby an
individuals soul or spirit is born again
until (moksha) a state of perfect
understanding of all things is achieved.
 They also believe in karma a soul’s
good or bad deeds. Karma influence’s
specific life circumstances, such as
castes people are born in, one’s health
or wealth.
What are the beliefs of those
who practice this religion?
 Hindus today are free to choose
the deity they worship or to
choose none at all.
 Hindu ideas about karma and
reincarnation strengthened the
caste system.
 The beliefs of Hinduism and its
caste structure dominated every
aspect of a person’s life.
How might the lack of a single founder
result in Hinduism changing more over
time than other religions?
No single set of original
beliefs determines
Hinduism’s development
so it can change more
freely than religions with
a founder.
What is Jainism?
The founder of this
religion Mahavira
believed that everything
in the universe has a soul
and so should not be
harmed.
Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
 The founder of Buddhism.
 The Buddhist legend states that
as a baby, he exhibited the marks
of a great man. The prophecy
stated that if the child stayed at
home he was destined to become
a world ruler. However, if the
child left home he would become
a universal spiritual leader.
Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
What is enlightenment?
 Wisdom that Siddhartha found after
wandering around in the wilderness
for six years.
 Siddhartha did three things to find
this enlightenment:
 He debated with other religious seekers.
 He fasted-ate only 6 grains of rice per day.
 He meditated for 49 days under a large fig
tree.
How did Siddhartha Gautama
gain the name “Buddha” ?
 After this meditation, he achieved an
understanding of the cause of
suffering in this world.
 From then on he was referred to
as “the enlightened one” or
Buddha.
What are the Four Noble Truths?
 These four principles became the
main ideas that Buddha came to
understand in his enlightenment.
The Four Noble Truths
 Life is filled with suffering and sorrow.
 The cause of all suffering is people’s
selfish desire for the temporary pleasures
of this world.
 The way to end all suffering is to end all
desires.
 The way to overcome such desires and
attain enlightenment is to follow the
Eightfold Path, which is called the Middle
Way between desires and self denial.
What is the Eightfold Path?
 A guide to behavior, similar to a
staircase.
 For Buddha, those who were seeking
enlightenment had to master one step
at a time.
 This mastery would occur over many
lifetimes.
 Eightfold Path is referred to as the
Middle Way.
The Middle Way








Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Right
Views
Resolve
Speech
Conduct
Livelihood
Effort
Mindfulness
Concentration
Hinduism vs. Buddhism
Similarities
 Search for a perfect
understanding.
 Search for an end to
suffering.
 Believe in
reincarnation.
 Accepted a repetitive
view of history.(The
world is created and
destroyed over and
over.
Differences
 Buddhism rejected a
caste system.
 Hinduism accepted
castes.
 Buddha rejected the
many gods of
Hinduism.
 Hinduism was founded
by multiple founders.
 Buddha was the soul
founder of Buddhism.
Nirvana
By following the Eightfold
Path, anyone could achieve
Nirvana.
Nirvana is Buddha’s word
for release from selfishness
and pain.
How does Buddhism affect
social caste systems?
 Because Buddha rejected social caste
systems, many of his first followers were
laborers and craftspeople.
 The Buddha reluctantly accepted women
into religious orders.
 Monks and nuns took solemn vows
(promises) to live a life of poverty, to be
non-violent, and not to marry.
 They traveled throughout India spreading
Buddha’s teachings only accepting charity
offerings.
Buddhism and India…
 How did Buddhism spread?
 After Buddha’s death, missionaries
were able to spread his faith over
large parts of Asia.
 Although the religion spread, it did
not take a strong foothold in India
(the country it originated in).
 Why?
Buddhism and India
 Theories are:
 Hinduism simply absorbed Buddhism
in India.
 The two religions always identified
with each other and over a span of
years the Buddha became known as
one of the 10 incarnations of a Hindu
god.
How might the people of the
Minoan civilization be described?
 They were a powerful seafaring people who
dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean
from about 2000 to 1400 B.C.
 They lived on the island of Crete on the
southern edge of the Aegean Sea.
 They were also artistic people who had an
advanced and thriving culture.
 No protective walls were discovered by
archaeologists which suggests they were
peaceful people.
Knossos and King Minos
Knossos was the capital city of the
Minoan civilization that was discovered
by archaeologists in the late 19th and
20th centuries.
King Minos was a legendary king who
owned a half-human, half-bull monster,
called the Minotaur.
Knossos and King Minos
Phonecians
 About 1100 B.C. after the decline of
Crete, they were most powerful
traders along the Mediterranean.
 They were remarkable shipbuilders
and seafarers.
 They were the first Mediterranean
people to venture beyond the Strait
of Gibraltar.
Phoenicians
 Their two most important city-states
were Tyre and Sidon.
 They produced a red-purple dye
made from a small snail called a
murex and the trading center for
papyrus called Byblos.
 They were superb craftspeople who
worked in wood, metal, glass, and
ivory.
Phonecians
What is the greatest legacy
of the Phoenicians?
The Alphabet.
 The Phoenicians developed a
writing system that used symbols
to represent sounds.
 The Phoenicians system was
phonetic or one sign was used for
one sound.
The Phoenician Alphabet
What is Palenstine?
 The region where the Phoenicians
lived in a region at the eastern end
of the Mediterranean Sea.
 The Phoenicians were not the
only people to live in this area.
The Romans had given this area to
the Philistines.
What is Canaan?
 This was the home of the Hebrews,
later called the Jews.
 Canaan lay between the Jordan River
and the Mediterranean Sea.
 Hebrews often used the word canaan
to refer to all of ancient Palenstine.
 According to the Bible, Canaan was
the land God promised to the Hebrew
people.
Canaan
What is the Torah?
 Most of what we know about the early
history of the Hebrews is contained in
the first five books of the Hebrew
Bible.
 Jews call these books the Torah and
consider them the most sacred
writings in their tradition.
 Christians respect these books as part
of the Old Testament.
In what ways are the Hebrew Torah
and the Hindu Vedas similar?
 Both books are the main sources of knowledge
about an ancient people.
 The Torah informs about the Hebrews and the
Vedas about the Aryans.
 Both books are considered sacred.
Who is Abraham?
 He was chosen by God in the Torah to
be the “father” of the Hebrew people.
 Abraham was a shepherd who lived
in the city of Ur, in Mesopotamia.
 God commanded Abraham and his
family to move to Canaan.
What is monotheism & covenant?
 Monotheism is a belief in a single
god.
 The word comes from the Greek
words mono meaning “one” and
theism, meaning “god-worship”.
 A mutual promise between God
and the founder of the Hebrew
people is called a covenant.
How did the religion of the Hebrews
differ from many of the religions of
their neighbors?
 The Hebrews worshipped only
one God who was called
Yahweh.
 Yahweh was not only the God
of Hebrews, but of all people.
 Yahweh fulfilled promises to
the Hebrews in a covenant.
Who was Moses?
 The Bible says that the Hebrews
migrated to Egypt to escape drought
and a threat of famine.
 At first they were honored in Egypt,
but later they were enslaved and as a
result the Hebrews fled which was
called the “Exodus”.
 The man who led the Hebrews out of
slavery was Moses.
Who was Moses?
 Moses was raised by the Egyptian
pharaoh’s daughter.
 Moses climbed Mt. Sinai where the
Bible says he talked to God and
received the stone tablets called the
“Ten Commandments”.
 The Ten Commandments and Moses
teachings became the basis for the
civil and religious laws of Judaism.
Moses
Three Israel kings…
 Saul, David and Solomon.
 From about 1020 to 922 BC, the
Hebrews united under these three
able kings.
 The new kingdom they developed
was Israel.
Three Israel kings…
King Saul
 The first of the three kings was
chosen largely because of his success
in driving out the Philistines from the
central hills of ancient Palestine.
 Saul is portrayed in the Bible as a
tragic man who was often jealous of
others.
 Saul was succeeded after his death
by David.
King David
 David was Saul’s son-in-law.
 He was a popular leader who united
the Hebrew tribes and established
Jerusalem as the capital and founded
a dynasty.
King Solomon
 David was succeeded by his son,
Solomon.
 Solomon was the most powerful of
the Hebrew kings.
 He built a trading empire.
 He beautified the capital city of
Jerusalem by building a great temple
which he built to glorify God.
King Solomon
 The great temple that Solomon had
built was to be a permanent home for
the Ark of the Covenant which housed
the Ten Commandments tablets.
 The temple was not large, but it
gleamed like a gem. The temple was
richly decorated with brass and gold.
Why did Israel split into two
kingdoms?
 Solomon’s building projects required high taxes
and badly strained the kingdom’s finances.
 Men were forced to work one out of every
three months working on the temple.
 The expense and forced labor caused
discontent.
 After Solomon’s death, the Jews in the
northern part of the kingdom, revolted.
 By 922 B.C., the kingdom had divided into two.
 Israel was in the north and Judah was in the
south.
Why did Babylonia go through a
period of captivity?
 Both Judah and Israel began paying
tribute or peace money paid by a
weaker power to a stronger – Assyria.
 By paying tributes, both Judah and
Israel hoped to ensure they would not
be attacked by the Assyrians.
 The tributes being paid were not
enough, which led to attacks and
captivity.
What were the main problems faced
by the Hebrews between 2000 and
700 B.C.?
 The main problems were:
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Migration
Slavery
Conflicts over land
Worship of other gods
High taxes
Kingdom split
Paid tributes to other nations
Conquered by Assyria

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