(MAR) for coastal aquifer management in a changing climate

Report
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for coastal
aquifer management in a changing climate
Hinsby, K.,
Johnsen, A.R., Jacobsen, C.S., Sørensen, S.R. and Postma D.
1Geological
Survey of Denmark and Greenland, GEUS, [email protected]
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building
8th annual meeting of the Danish Water Research and Innovation Platform – DWRIP January 30th, 2014, KU Science, Frederiksberg, Copenhagen
Outline
•
Global challenges on coastal aquifer management in a changing
climate
•
Location and introduction to ”Water4Coasts” study sites
•
Partners and funding of the Water4Coasts project
•
Main threats for the Brazilian, Chinese and Danish study sites
•
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) – a possible solution?
•
Objectives of the Water4Coasts project
•
Preliminary results from the Danish study site
Water4Coasts/sites and issues
Seawater intrusion
Flooding
Falster,
Denmark
Eutrophication / algal
blooms / fish kills
Overabtraction and
water table decline
Recife, Brazil
Land subsidence
Laizhou bay,
China
Partners:
Brazil: Fed. Univ. Pernambuco, Recife;
Fed. Univ. Rio de Janeiro
China: China Geol. Survey (CGS –
Tianjin Center), Univ. Nanjing
Denmark: GEUS; Univ. Aarhus; Univ.
Roskilde,Grontmij/COWI, Sorbisense,
Hydroinform
Water4Coasts funding
• Funding 50 % by the Ecoinnovation program of
the Danish Ministry of Environment/ EPA - 50 %
by partner institutions
• China and Brazil fund own case studies but receive small
funding for monitoring devices from Danish EPA.
• 2 Year project – three case study sites
SWI study site in Brazil, Recife.
Brazil
study
site
Recife
Rio dJ
Recife
and Rio
de
Janeiro
settings,
Brazil
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building
Recife situation – evaluation of injection
of harvested rainwater for SWI control
Copenhagen, June 2013
8
Rain harvesting and injection into seawater
intrusion barriers – a potential solution?
experiment
Copenhagen, June 2013
9
SWI study site China, Laizhou Bay
Beijing
Tianjin
China study site /
Laizhou Bay
Shallow aquifer at Laizhou Bay
Relationship
between
precipitation,
groundwater
Shallow
groundwater
level curve
extraction and depth to water table
Apply and test new innovative and efficient
monitoring, data handling and visualisation
techniques
Hubert de Jonge (director of ”Sorbisense” www.sorbisense.com)
demon-strate the passive sampler ”SorbiCell” for time and flow
averaged monitoring of e.g. organic microcontaminants and
Remote
Airborne
Data handling and visualisaton nutrients
sensing
Physiognomy
Soil
SWI
Monitor
system
Physical chemistry
of water in well
Surface
Rivers
Underground
Testing new and less expensive on-line chloride and
nitrate sensors
The Island of Falster –
measures to reduce
seawater intrusion, flooding risks and eutrophication
DWS
Sweden
Denmark
Copenhagen
Baltic Sea
/ salinity
~ 10
%o
Geological
Survey of Denmark and Greenland
Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building
Island of
Falster
Germany
Poland
www.baltcica.org
MAR in coastal aquifers – and the
principle of seawater intrusion barrier
to control seawater intrusion
After Sheahan, 1977 (Ground Water)
Most experience and known
examples in California (from
the early 50’s) and Spain.
Water4Coasts objective: To evaluate possible measures
for reducing seawater intrusion (SWI) etc., and new
innovative tools for groundwater quality monitoring,
data handling and visualisation
•
Evaluate feasibility and effect of hydraulic barriers to control SWI
(quantity and quality issues)
•
SEAWAT Model assessments of the efficiency of different hydraulic
barrier designs to reduce SWI (vertical vers horisontal wells / injection
vers. abstraction) – as well as travel times to water supply wells
•
Feasibility study of using recycled water and/or harvested
rainwater for managed aquifer recharge / MAR to control SWI
(quality issues e.g. Org. microcontaminants, pathogens,
oxidation/mobilization of trace elements and clogging by PhreeqC)
•
Develop and evaluate new innovative monitoring, data handling
and visualisation techniques
SEAWAT model evaluation of injection of drainage + recycled water into
vertical and/or horisontal SWI barrier wells to reduce SWI, flooding and
eutrophication risks
In
Well field 3
Waste Water
Treatment
Plant
Well field 2
seawater intrusion
barrier
Sampling sites in
drain chanel
Water Works
Pumping Station
Well field 1
100 and 25 m deep
investigation wells
1 km
93 pharmaceutical compounds
Outlet from treatment plant –
31 finds, 19 above proposed DWS
18/4-2013
Conc. (ng/l)
Pharmaceutical
Compound class
Atenolol
Cardiovascular diseases
120
Furosemide
Cardiovascular diseases
2800
Losartan
Cardiovascular diseases
420
Metoprolol
Cardiovascular diseases
2500
Propranolol
Cardiovascular diseases
810
Gemfibrozil
Cardiovascular disease (cholesterol)
340
Hydrochlortiazide
Cardiovascular disease, diuretic
780
Karbamazepine
Psychopharmica
230
Citalopram
Psychopharmica
2300
Mirtazapin
Psychopharmica
120
Oxazepam
Psychopharmica
190
14/8-2013
Pharmaceutical compounds
18/4-2013
Conc. (ng/l)
Pharmaceutical
Compound class
Diklofenak
Painkiller, antiinflammatory
240
Codeine
Painkiller
680
Naproxen
Pain killer, antiinflamatory
130
Tramadol
Painkiller
3600
Trimetoprim
Antibiotic
1200
Azithromycin
Antibiotic
230
Sulfametoxazole
Antibiotic
160
Cetirizine
Antihistamine (allergy)
190
Sum
14/8-2013
17.300
The sum of all finds is > 34 times a groundwater quality standard
which was recently unofficiently suggested by the German EPA
Potential inorganic reactions
to be considered -
when injecting oxic recycled water to anoxic aquifer:
Positive effects: Reduction of oxygen and nitrate
(denitrification) by pyrite and organic matter –
sorption of dissolved P.
Negative effects: Release of trace metals (Zn, As,
Ni?+) by pyrite oxidation, however probably sorbed
to precipitating Fe-hydroxides -> clogging? (redox
env. And pH need to be controlled and monitored)
Neutral effects (potentially neg.): Ion exchange
Ca <-> Na and freshening
Preliminary conclusions
• The quality of the water in the drainage canals / ditches in
the Danish test site is poor due to quite high contents of
pharmaceuticals and pathogens and requires efficient
treatment before aquifer recharge.
• Future research on the transport and fate / travel times of
pharmaceuticals and pathogens in (fractured) aquifers and
in the aquatic environment in general is strongly needed
• Cost-efficient screening and treatment technologies for
pharmaceuticals in recycled water is strongly needed in
order to make managed aquifer recharge systems with
recycled water more widely accepted.
多謝 – Thank you 

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