The student will describe European settlement in

Students must master these standards
to perform well on unit exams, the
GHSGT in Social Studies and the EOCT.
SSUSH1: The student will describe
European settlement in North
America during the 17th century.
SSUSH1-1: Explain Virginia’s development; include the
Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, relationships
with Native Americans such as Powhatan,
development of the House of Burgesses, Bacon’s
Rebellion, and the development of slavery.
How did the Virginia Colony develop?
The first British settlers arrived in what is now Virginia in 1607
under the leadership of Captain John Smith. The colony of
Jamestown was built by the Virginia Company as an economic
venture. Their mission was to find gold, Christianize the natives
and find a waterway to India through the northwest territory.
What kind of relationship did the Virginia colonists have with
the Native Americans?
The colony established trade relationships with the native
Powhatan Indians (Powhatan was also the name of their chief, his
daughter was Pocahontas). The colonists at first depended entirely
on the natives for their survival –for food and learning how to live
through the winter. Often the relationship between them was
violent and bloody
What role did John Smith play in the colony?
He brought the colony some order. The colony suffered through
contaminated water, starvation and disease. They did not find gold
and could not successfully search for a northwest passage to India
because they were too involved in surviving. He forced the
colonists to learn to farm and persuaded the Powhatan to provide
What eventually made the Jamestown colony prosperous?
Tobacco. John Rolfe, a colonist experimented with growing a new
type of tobacco which was a cross between Brazilian tobacco and a
weed the Native Americans had grown for a long time. It was
successful and tobacco became “brown gold” for the colony and
allowed it to grow and export tobacco to Europe.
With the development of tobacco farming, what did the
colonists need the most? How did they get it?
A good supply of land and labor. In order to make money growing
tobacco, you had to plant a lot. Plantations (large farms) devoted
to tobacco farming were developed. Many plantation owners
imported indentured servants from England to work as laborers. In
exchange for passage to America, food and shelter, the indentured
servant worked for a certain period and then earned their
freedom. In 1619, the first African were brought in as indentured
servants but later Africans were brought in as slaves. Conditions
for all of these laborers were harsh.
Why did Virginia become a royal colony in 1624, meaning it
was under direct control of the King of England?
English settlers and the Native Americans continued to battle each
other over control of land and resources. Some indentured
servants who had earned their freedom wanted to start their own
farms now but the natives did not want to give up any more land.
The Powhatan attacked the colony, killed over 300 colonists and
left the Virginia Company bankrupt. The King revoked the Virginia
Company’s charter and took the colony over. The English sent
more troops and settlers to strengthen the colony.
What was Bacon’s Rebellion and what was its impact on
colonial society?
Nathaniel Bacon was a Jamestown colonist who hated the natives.
He raised an army of former indentured servants and went on the
attack. The Governor declared the army illegal and so Bacon
wanted to confront the colonial leadership about several
grievances, including the lack of representation for the common
people in the Virginia legislature. This confrontation turned
violent and Bacon attacked Jamestown. This became known as
Bacon’s Rebellion. This rebellion made the planter class want to
hold onto their wealth and power but also showed the growing
power of the former indentured servants.
What was the House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was the first representative body in
colonial America. It first met in Jamestown in 1619. Two citizen
representatives, or Burgesses, were selected from each of
Virginia’s 11 districts. They claimed power to tax and make laws.
The English governor had the power to veto any legislation he did
not like.
SSUSH1: The student will describe
European settlement in North
America during the 17th century.
SSUSH1-2. Describe the settlement of New England; include
religious reasons, relations with Native Americans (e.g., King
Phillip’s War), the establishment of town meetings and
development of a legislature, religious tensions that led to
colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem
Witch Trials, and the loss of the Massachusetts charter.
Who settled New England and why did they establish a
colony there?
The driving force for colonists to settle along the Atlantic coast in
North America in New England was religion. Puritans were people
who wanted the Anglican Church of England to rid itself of Catholic
rituals and practices. King James of England thought these people
were a threat to his rule and he tried to expel them from England.
The first group of Puritans, sometimes called THE PILGRIMS, came
to America in 1620 aboard the MAYFLOWER. They were hoping to
land in the Virginia colony, but landed farther north and set up a
new colony at Plymouth Bay.
How were the Massachusetts Bay Colonists governed?
Before leaving the Mayflower, the colonists agreed to govern
themselves in the MAYFLOWER COMPACT, a document that
established self-government and the concept for the separation of
church and state and the rule of the majority. In 1629, other
Puritans arrived and established the Massachusetts Bay Colony
with John Winthrop as their leader. Winthrop delivered the
“Model of Christian Charity” sermon on board the Arabella before
they landed, calling for the new colony to act as a “city upon a hill,”
for all the Christian world to see and copy.
How did religious tensions lead to the development of other
colonies in New England
Other New England colonies were established, like Rhode Island, in
the name of religious freedom by a Puritan who didn’t like the
dominance of the Puritan Church, Roger Williams.
How did self-government continue to develop in New
The first constitution in colonial America was established in
Connecticut, “The Fundamental Orders,” in the spirit of self
government established by the Puritan communities. The colonies
of New England relied on town meetings and developed their own
colonial legislatures.
Describe the relationship between the New England colonists
and the Native Americans.
The relationship between the Puritans and the Native Americans
were difficult from the beginning, finally resulting in most of the
native American population being wiped out by the colonists.
How did tension over religion cause problems in the
Massachusetts Bay Colony?
The Puritan Church was losing membership because of their
inflexibility and in 1662, the Halfway Covenant gave non-converted
Puritans a partial membership in the church. In 1692, a group of
young girls in Salem, Massachusetts got caught up in hysteria
about witchcraft that resulted in 20 executions of women accused
of being witches. This damaged the Puritan church beyond repair.
What was the fate of the New England colonies?
In 1686, King James II was fed up with the political and economic
independence of New England and brought these New England
colonies under stricter control with the establishment of the
Dominion of New England.
SSUSH1: The student will describe
European settlement in North
America during the 17th century.
SSUSH1-3. Explain the development of the midAtlantic colonies; include the Dutch settlement
of New Amsterdam and subsequent English
takeover, and the settlement of Pennsylvania.
Describe the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam.
The Dutch West India Company first established the New
Amsterdam colony in 1623 as an economic enterprise for the trade
of furs from the Hudson Valley. After fights with the Native
Americans, the Dutch were finally expelled by the British. New
Amsterdam became New York City and the colony became known
as New York.
Describe the settlement of the other Middle Colonies.
A group of religious dissenters called Quakers believed the power
of God resided in the soul of the individual. They were ordered to
leave the Puritan community of Massachusetts Bay. Many of them
joined William Penn of England in the founding of Pennsylvania or
“Penn’s Woods.”
New Jersey and Delaware were also Quaker colonies that were
established in 1664 and 1703. They were similar to Pennsylvania
politically, socially and economically and with New York these
colonies formed what were called the Middle Colonies.
SSUSH1: The student will describe
European settlement in North
America during the 17th century.
SSUSH1-4. Explain the reasons for
French settlement of Quebec.
Describe the French colonization in North America.
The French arrived in North America around 1524, focusing mostly
in what is today Canada and the upper northeastern U.S. French
explorers such as Jacques Cartier and Samuel de Champlain
developed a friendly business relationship with Native Americans,
mostly in the fur trade dealing in beaver pelts.
What was the outcome of the French settlement in North
The French trade networks covered the Northeast down the
Mississippi River to present day New Orleans. The French also
brought diseases, guns and alcohol with them to the native
populations. Warfare between the Native American tribes
worsened after the French gave them guns as presents.

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