ACES People - Monash University

Report
A National Centre of Excellence in
Electromaterials Science
Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE
ARC Federation Fellow
School of Chemistry Monash University
Artificial
Photosynthesis
Corrosion and
Interfacial Science
Energy
Generation
Electromaterials
Science
Energy
Storage
Bionics
Wollongong
Deakin/Monash Universities
ACES People
Prof Gordon Wallace FAA FTSE
Federation Fellow
Director, ACES, UoW
Prof David Officer
Materials Program Leader
ACES UoW
Prof Doug MacFalane FAA FTSE
Federation Fellow
Energy Program Leader, ACES, Monash
Prof Maria Forsyth
Australian Laureate Fellow
Associate Director
ACES Deakin
Prof Leone Spicca
ACES Monash
ACES People
Nobel Laureate Alan McDairmid (ACES Advisory Board Chairman until his death in 2009)
with ACES students and postdocs (and Prof MacFarlane)
ACES Outcomes
• Publications in:
Science, Nature Chemistry, Nature Nanotechnology, Advanced Materials
• Typically more than 150 papers published per year
• Typically approx 4 patent applications per year
• Aquahydrix spin out company
• Hosts 3 Centre workshops per year plus one national conference
• Hosts > 30 visiting students and researchers from all over the world, per year.
ACES Funding
• Funding from the Australian Research Council
- core funding approx
$2.5 M per year
- Fellow salaries (Australian Postdoctoral Fellows, Future Fellows,
Federation Fellows, Laureate Fellows) approx
$2.0M per year
• Funding from partner Universities
approx
$1.0M per year
• State government funding
approx
$800k per year
ACES Programs
Nanostructured
Electromaterials
Energy
Medical Bionics
A National Centre
ACES
With Global Collaborations
Drawing students, working with collaborators and
building commercial linkages in 18 countries
Energy
Program
Program Leader
Professor Doug MacFarlane FAA FTSE – Monash University
Goal: Advanced Sustainable Energy Generation and Storage
Program Themes
- Advanced Batteries (Li, Mg, Na)
- Dye sensitised solar cells
- Solar water splitting (Hydrogen Generation)
Aquahydrix spin-out
- CO2 reduction to fuels
- Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Production
- Thermocells
Renewable Energy Issues
• Less than 10% of Australia’s energy
comes form renewable sources
• Often generated in remote areas
• Energy storage a limiting factor
Clean Energy 2010 Report - http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/
Energy Storage Technologies
Power/Energy characteristics of batteries
Ionic Liquid electrolytes
for metal air batteries
Salts that are liquid at
room temperature!
– Stabilise metal anode
– Low volatility – reduce
evaporation
– Good solubility of
discharge products
– Improved safety
Comparison of energy densities for various battery chemistries – [http://www.nexergy.com/batterydensity.htm]
Organic solvent electrolytes:
www.unicam.it/discichi/dottchi/nobili
Ethylene
carbonate
Diethyl
carbonate
Problems: high vapor pressure, flammable,leakage
Armand, M. et. al. Nat Mater 2009, 8, 621
Ionic liquids as stable electrolytes for
Iithium batteries
Li reactivity – a problem for the electrolyte => ILs provide a solution
> 99% Li cycling
efficiency
demonstrated
100 µm
100 m
P. C. Howlett, D. R. MacFarlane and A. F. Hollenkamp, Electrochemical and
Solid-State Letters, 2004, 7, A97-A101.
Ionic liquids and reactions at the electrochemical interface. D.R. MacFarlane, J.M. Pringle, P.C. Howlett, M. Forsyth, Phys.Chem.
Chem. Phys. 2010, 12, 1659
Magnesium-Air Batteries
Battery System
Pb-acid
Li ion
Li metal
Mg-air
Petrol
Energy Density
MJ/kg
0.08
0.4-0.80
1.3
8
47
Cheaper than other high performance
batteries (Mg $2,700/ton, Li $65,000/ton)
Magnesium is non-toxic, biocompatible and
environmentally friendly
We have shown IL can passivate
Mg
Howlett PC et al The effect of potential bias on the formation of Ionic liquid generated
surface films on Mg alloys. Electrochim. Acta 2010.
Manganese oxide catalysts
Energy loss, %
0
10
5
15
20
Current density
-2
(mA·cm )
2.0
1.5
1.0
MnOx
BAS-IL
MnOx IrOx MnOx
BAS
RuOx
Good
Catalyst
Ideal
Catalyst
Bad
Catalyst
Co-Pi
0.5
0.0
0.0
25
MnCat
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Overpotential (V)
Catalytic performance of the manganese oxide in 1 M NaOH and various catalysts
BAS – 0.4M dibutyl ammonium sulfate pH10, BAS-IL - 2M dibutyl ammonium sulfate pH10
F. Zhou, A. Izgorodin, R.K. Hocking, L. Spiccia, D.R. MacFarlane, Electrodeposited MnOx Films from Ionic Liquid for
Electro-Catalytic Water Oxidation, Adv. Energy Mater. (2012) In print
M. W. Kanan, D. G. Nocera, Science 321, 1072 (2008).
G. Lodi, E. Sivieri, A. de Battisti, S. Trasatti, J. App. Electrochem. 8, 135 (1978).
S. Gottesfeld, S. Srinivasan, J. Electroanal. Chem. 86, 89 (1978).
MnCat – manganese dioxide
deposited from aqueous elecrolyte
Dau et al Energy and Environ Sci in press 2012
Amount of H2O2, mole
Hydrogen peroxide production
0.8
BAS
BAS with MnO2 powder
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0
10
20
30
40
Time, hours
Concentration of H2O2 detected over time in the BAS electrolyte with and without
MnO2 disproportionation catalyst.
Izgorodin et al Patent Application March 2012
Thermoelectrochemical Cells
 Utilise a redox couple dissolved in an
electrolyte.
 The potential of the redox couple changes with
temperature. Magnitude of change again given
by the Seebeck coefficient Se
Se = Δ V/ ΔT = ∆S/ nF
 Majority of prior research has focussed on aqueous
electrolytes: 0.4M Fe(CN)63-/4- gives Se 1.4 mV K-1.
 Current improved using MWNT electrodes.*
Hu, Cola, Haram, Barisci, Lee,
Stoughton, Wallace, Too, Thomas,
Gestos, dela Cruz, Ferraris, Zakhidov,
Baughman. Nanoletters 2010, 10, 838
ILs in Thermoelectrochemical Cells
–
Use of IL electrolytes as replacement for water:
– increases operational temperature up to ca. 200 oC:
 heating/cooling water pipes in power stations.
 geothermal activity
– Increased device lifetime through use of non-volatile electrolytes.
–
Targeting large scale, low cost devices.
*Hu
et al. Nanoletters 2010, 10, 838.
Further Information
www.electromaterials.edu.au
www.chem.monash.edu.au/ionicliquids

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