Research - Somerset Learning Platform

Report
Exam Questions
The exam
Theory paper AQA
2 hour paper with 120 marks
40% of total marks
Section A is the design section offering 30 marks
Section B covers the rest of the specification for 90 marks
Types of questions asked – practise with these types of answer
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Explain
Describe
What is meant by
Identify
Give reasons for your choice
1 Question 1 is about researching a product range.
1 (a) Explain how manufacturers could use the Internet when designing and making a new
range of hot drinks.
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(4 marks)
1 (b) What other types of electronic media may be used when researching existing
products?
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(2 marks)
1
(a) Explain how manufacturers could use the internet when
designing and making a new range of hot drinks.
• Research competitors products
• Use of e mail / facilities to speed up communication
• Analyse existing products/recipes e.g. Identify price range
• Nutritional analysis e.g. to find out more about special diets
• Packaging simulations
• Collect information e.g. images/ data/costings/weights of
ingredients
• Use websites e.g. Assess popularity of existing products
• Identify new ingredients e.g. recipe ideas/product ideas
• Sourcing of ingredients
Up to four simplistic answers or several detailed , qualified answers (3-4 marks)
Several simplistic answers or one detailed (1-2 marks)
4 marks
(b) What other types of electronic media may be used when
researching existing products?
• E mail to contact manufacturers
• Digital camera
• Digital TV/ TV
• CD roms / software programmes
• DVD
• MP3
• EPOS electronic point of sale
• Video/camcorder
• Other relevant answers e.g. radio, scanner, telephone,
texting
• Answers may give examples of use
2 x 1 mark (2 marks)
Total for question 6 marks
(b) How can manufacturers use computers to gather information
about
the food preferences of visitors from other countries?
Information from computer:
• email
• internet searches / websites
• comparative shops
• electronic sources e.g. CD roms
• market trends
• databases
• sales figures
• conferencing
• production of questionnaires, surveys
• clear presentation of results / use of Word processing / DTP /
graphical images
detailed relevant answers 4 marks
a mixture of full or simplistic answers 2-3 marks
simplistic answer 1 mark
(4 marks)
2 (a) (i) Why is it important to research existing food products before starting to
design new
products?
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(3 marks)
2 (a) (ii) Describe ways in which a computer could be used to research existing food
products.
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(3 marks)
2. (a)(i) Why is it important to research existing
products before starting to
design new products?
• To see what is already on market/on sale
• Ensure what you make will meet with current
consumer needs
• To identify good features you will want to keep
• So you can improve on/identify weaknesses of
products already on sale.
• Get inspiration for new product/use customer
reviews
• Identify prices
• Identify competition
• Look for gap in the market
2. (a)(ii)
A computer could be useful to research existing products :
• using internet searches/websites
• Spread sheet storage/ interrogation of sales figures
• Email other suppliers/manufacturers
• Looking at images of food products on sale as secondary
research
• Greater capacity for searching the market
• Comparative product analysis is easier/quicker
• Using on line surveys/questionnaires/email with target
consumers
• carrying out nutritional analysis on products
• working out potential costs/ scaling up implications
• Saves on travel time/expense give advantage
• Facility to show research results neatly presented
• Information/data gathered can be stored for later use
• Can predict future trends
• More accurate than human searches
(ii) meeting the cultural needs of competitors
from other countries
• cultural flavours
• traditional recipes and ingredients
• may give examples of specific spices /
flavours used
• foods linked with specific country e.g. British
. potatoes,
Chinese . rice
• ingredients used to cater for different
religious beliefs, e.g. halal or
kosher meats
• no meat content for vegetarian consumers
due to religious beliefs
e.g. Hindus no beef, Muslims no pork
a mixture of full or simplistic answers 2 marks
simplistic answer 1 mark
(2 marks)
(b) (i)
Name one method of sensory testing
1 mark
(ii) Describe how this
sensory test is carried out.
5 marks
(b) (i)
Any named form of testing e.g. difference tests, ranking
tests, rating
tests, profiling. ( Do not accept preference, blindfold or
taste testing)
(ii)
• Place where carried out
• Type of people to ask / target group /
audience/public
• Number of people asked
• Fair testing considerations e.g. sips of water,
quiet area,
booths, small samples, random labelling
• How results are recorded
• Analysis of results / data
• Conclusions drawn from results
• How results may benefit future product
design
(iii) Describe how a computer can be used to
record the results of
sensory testing.
(iv) Explain how the
results of sensory testing
are used by
manufacturers.
Answers
(iv) Explain how the results of sensory
testing are used by manufacturers.
• To compare different design ideas
• To identify consumer preferences
• To compare to other
manufacturers/brands
• To identify market trends
• To compare product to specification
• To improve product
• To develop new products
• Conclusion drawn form results
•to benefit future product design
• to plan further testing / trialling with
target consumers
• to compare results with previous
product testing
• Other relevant answers
(iii) Good answers will include reference
to some of the following
methods of presenting results
• Charts
• Labelled graphics
• Pie charts
• Graphs / grids
• Charts / bars
• Radar charts/profiles
• Spreadsheets / excel
• Power point presentations / slideshows
• Digital images / photographs
• Word processed / written report
Name the ingredients that are most suitable for use in
each of
the products below.
Give a detailed reason for your choices.
1. Fat for pastry
2. Sponge cake
3. Well risen loaf of bread
Understanding ingredients in products
Sponge Cake
Choice: sugar; castor sugar
(1 mark)
Reasons:
•Finer grain
• Easier to cream
• Smoother texture
• Larger grains may give
speckled texture
Fat for pastry:
• Choice: fat butter /
margarine lard /
mixture
Reasons:
• Adds colour
• Adds nutritive value / vit
AD
• Adds to shelf life
• Shortening properties
Understanding ingredients in products
Well risen loaf of bread
• Choice: Strong wholemeal
Reasons:
• Contains protein ‘gluten’
• Gluten stretches to hold CO2
produced by the yeast
• Gluten coagulates to form the
structure of bread.
• To improve elasticity
• To assist rising / light open
texture
(ii) Explain how flour thickens a
white sauce.
• When heated –
• Starch grains absorb the liquid
Swell
• Eventually burst and thicken the
mixture
• Causing gelatinisation to take
place
Any two points (2 marks)
One point given (1 mark)
4 (b) (i) Complete the table below to show the causes of each problem
and how each problem may be prevented.
Problem
The chicken is
moist and pink
inside
An insect is found
in the rice before
cooking
Cause
Prevention
Problem
The chicken is
moist and pink
inside
An insect is found
in the rice before
cooking
Cause
Prevention
insufficient cooking
-not fully defrosted
before use
-temp too low
-cooking time too
short
-control checks not
completed
check fully
defrosted before
use
-sufficient cooking
time
-relevant cooking
temp
-use of food probe
to check cooking
-Poor hygiene
standards
-Rice not covered
during storage
-Incorrect storage
-Damaged
packaging
-insufficient control
checks
check rice before
use
-Use insect
repellent
-Routine hygiene
inspections
-regular hygiene
checks
-visual checks
4
(a) How are these ingredients suitable for
consumers choosing a
healthy option product?
• Wholemeal flour – high fibre, energy, iron, Vit B
• Sweeteners – reduced sugar content
• Polyunsaturated margarine – lower in saturated fats, heart
disease, lower in cholesterol
• Skimmed milk, Low fat yoghurt – lower in fat, lower
cholesterol, lower calories
• Eggs – protein, Vit A D, iron.
• Blueberries – fruit portion towards 5 a day, some Vitamin C,
fibre
• Information on health links may be credited e.g. heart
disease, dental caries, obesity, digestion, cancer etc
(b) What are the advantages of using tunnel ovens when
baking
batches of biscuits?
consistency of outcome
• process can be timed accurately
• even colour for biscuits
• CAM more efficient than using human
workforce/to make
large quantities
• less human input due to computer control/
less human error
• different temperatures can be set for
different stages of
production
• cost effective after initial set up
• some tunnel ovens lead into cooling towers
at the end for
rapid cooling / saving time
• continuous flow for large scale production
7
(a) Why is fresh cream
classed as a high risk
food?
7
(a)Why is fresh cream classed as a high risk food?
• Protein food e.g. dairy product
• Risk of contamination if not pasteurised
• Moist
• Short shelf life
• Easily contaminated if not kept at correct temperature
• Provides ideal conditions for micro organisms/bacteria to
develop/may cause food poisoning
3 x 1 mark (3 marks)
5 Question 5 is about testing new products.
This is from a recipe for fruit slices.
Ingredients: 150 g wholemeal flour
100 g white flour
50 g soft brown sugar
125 g polyunsaturated margarine
200 g apricots
5 (a) (i) Which ingredients help to give a golden colour to the fruit slice?
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(2 marks)
5 (a) (ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice product to
improve the flavour.
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(2 marks)
5 (a) (iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit slice product to
improve the texture.
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(4 marks)
5 (a) (iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slice to give an
appealing, quality finish.
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(2 marks)
5
(a)
(i) Which ingredients help to give a golden
colour to the fruit
slice?
• Wholemeal flour
• Soft brown sugar
• Apricots
• Polyunsaturated margarine
(ii) Describe one way of developing the fruit
slice product to
improve the flavour.
• Addition of different fruits, more fruits or
mixture of fruits,
e.g. cranberries
• Any other idea that adds ‘fruit’ flavour,
essences
• Addition of spices e.g. nutmeg, cinnamon
• Addition of sweetness
• Carry out further sensory testing
(iii) Describe two ways of developing the fruit
slice product to
improve the texture.
• Addition of nuts, coconut, seeds
• Named type of texture identified e.g.
crunchy, soft, sticky
• Oats in place of wholemeal flour
• Any other idea that adds ‘crunchy’
• Cook for correct time to give crunch
• Reference to the method of making e.g.
rubbing in correctly
• Dried and fresh fruit added
• Different types/quantities of ingredients
used e.g. fats,
sugars, flours to change outcome
• Size of ingredients e.g. grated v chopped
(iv) Describe one way of developing the fruit slices to give an
appealing, quality finish.
• Sugar topping
• Pinched edges
• Egg wash
• Milk wash
• Forked patterns on top
• Icing sugar dredged
• Chopped nuts. seeds topping, e.g. almonds
• Add ready prepared decorations
• Add fresh or dried fruit toppings
• Add fruit glaze, yoghurt topping, flavoured cream cheese
etc.
• Add drizzled chocolate, jams, glace icing, named fruit,
coloured…
(ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites
when they are
whisked.
(iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg
whites when they
are cooked.
(ii) Explain what happens to the egg whites when they are
whisked.
• A foam is formed when air is mixed into egg white
• egg protein stretches to hold larger air bubbles
• aeration takes place
• surface tension breaks down
• egg white (albumin) denatures/breaks down
• the foam becomes white, stiff, smooth and light textured
• heat generated from whisking partially coagulates
mixture.
(iii) Explain what happens to the whisked egg whites when they
are cooked.
• foam remains stable (does not rise)
• gives fine, solid mesh structure
• protein coagulates/sets
• coagulates at 60C
• longer time at lower temperature gives a whiter, drier
meringue.
• shorter time at higher temperature gives a browner, sticky
and pliable meringue.
7 (a) What is meant by a hazard in the food
industry?
• Anything that can cause harm/damage to the
consumer/product.
May be
• chemical /e.g. cleaning materials
• biological / e.g. microbiological agents
• physical hazard /e.g. glass, hair
Qualified answer or two simplistic answers ( 2
marks )
Simplistic answer ( 1 mark )
(2 marks)
Factors affecting choice of foods:
Each answer may refer to:
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Age
Gender
Culture / tradition
Lifestyle
Type of sports event / endurance / hydration levels
Indoor or outdoor events
Personal preferences / likes / dislikes / appeal / interest
Special dietary needs e.g. vegetarian, weight control, allergies
Cost of foods on sale
Amount of energy needed for event
Season of year
Hot or cold foods preferred
Nutritional value of foods
Advertising
Size of portion
Ease of use
(iii) Main ingredients and reasons for
use:
Flour for pastry
• shortcrust: soft plain has low gluten content for short
crumb
• flaky; strong plain has high gluten for stretchy dough,
rolling.
Fat (named white / lard / butter / margarine)
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flavour
colour
nutritive value
keeping quality enhanced
coats flour / shortening texture / adds richness
Salt
folding into layers..
• forms structure
• dextrinises (browns) when baked at high temperatures
Flour for sauces etc
• gelatinisation
• forms structure
Water
• binds rubbed in fats and flour together
• improves ease of rolling out/ moisture
• develops gluten when mixed with strong flour
• causes starch to gelatinise
• flaky: combines with gluten for stretchy dough.
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• develops flavour
• flaky: gluten strengthened
Lemon juice
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• strengthens gluten
• counteracts fat
Ingredients for filling, finish may include reasons for use as
appropriate:
• flavour
• colour
• texture
• enriching
• adding moisture / decorate / garnish / suitable accompaniment
to make dish nutritionally balanced
•
add nutritional value . any named nutrient acceptable
Problem
Cause
Prevention
Pastry is dry and
breaks
Incorrect
proportions of
ingredients
• Over handling
• Overcooking /
time / temp
• Not used in time
Weigh accurately
• Monitor working
temp / keep cool /
moist
• Training staff
• Quality control
checks
• Cover before use
Incorrect seal
• Not used water
to
join edges
• Too much filling /
insufficient pastry
• Pastry too thin /
torn
Accurate weighing
of filling
• Quality control
checks
• Training of staff
• Sealing of edges
Lack of visual
checks
• Poor supplier
Check on suppliers
• Clear
specification
Filling leaks out
Shell in the filling
4. (b) Describe ways of adding a quality finish
to a batch of fruit loaves.
• Identification of when finish applied :
before or after cooking
• Brush on beaten egg glaze/ with pastry
brush /to give shiny or
glossy finish.
• Egg spray for large scale
• Sugar solution –melt sugar in water –coolbrush on
• Brush with milk glaze before sprinkling with
sugar
• Brush top sprinkle spices e.g. cinnamon,
grated zest sprinkled on
before cooking
• Make cuts across the top before cooking to
give interesting
textures/shapes/pattern for visual appeal
• Add decoration e.g. fruits,
crystallised/caramelised sugar, peel
etc.
• Add icing e.g. Chelsea buns, iced buns
5. (a)(i) Explain why consumers choose to buy takeaway products
instead of
making the food themselves.
Lack of skills
• Lack of time and effort / busy lifestyles make takeaways
convenient as instant foods little cooking or preparation needed.
• Quick and easy
• Availability of take away foods
• Prefer tastes of takeaway
• Convenient for gatherings/special occasions/parties
• Wide selection of multicultural options available
• Consumer may lack skills needed /Food expertly cooked by
specialist chefs with knowledge of special equipment/methods
etc.
• Some takeaways specialise in different dietary needs and can
be
helpful for consumers dealing with different needs. E.g gluten
free.
• Takeaways may prove cheaper than buying all ingredients
needed.
• less clearing up/washing up
• Other relevant answers
5. (a)(ii) Explain some of the disadvantages of takeaway foods.
• Often seen as unhealthy/often high in fat and salt
• Some takeaways thought to contribute towards health
problems/not helpful for consumers wanting healthier options
• Packaging to deal with
• Price considerations: Expensive to buy, but some can be
cheaper
than buying individual ingredients to make at home.
• Often use artificial additives
• May need to travel to buy
• May not have what you like
• No control over outcomes/ do not know what goes into the
food
• Often use large number of additives/e numbers which can be
detrimental to health
• Cannot guarantee freshness/quality
• May cause food poisoning if not cooked/stored/reheated
safely or
hygienically
• No control over source of foods/suppliers
• Some people e.g. young generation are over reliant on
takeaways
and therefore do not learn cooking skills.
(c) Explain why some control checks are done by
computers.
• saves manufacturer time
• less staff
• more reliable / accurate / consistent
• less human error
• easier for monitoring
• alerted immediately if problems
• credit specific examples e.g. for temp, time, control,
weight
checks, PH, metal detection
7 (a) Explain why colour coded equipment is used when preparing
beefburgers.
• Prevents cross contamination
• Colour coded knives / boards allow different foods to be prepared
separately
• May give colours used for raw meat (red) cooked burger (yellow)
/ vegetables (brown) / bread (white) / fish (blue) / salad (green)
• Keeps foods apart so that bacterial infection not at risk
• High risk foods kept separately
Detailed answer or mixture of simplistic / well explained answers 3 marks
Simplistic answers lacking detail 1-2 marks
(3 marks)

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