Final What the Cows told us CARE WEBEX

What the Cows Told Us: Measuring Women's
Empowerment in a Dairy Value Chain
Kakuly Tanvin, SDVC Project Manager, G&T
Nurul Amin Siddiquee, SDVC Team Leader
Shreyas Sreenath, Fulbright Fellow
Strengthening the Dairy value Chain Project
Project Overview
Gender Approach
Results & Lessons
Measuring Gender Impact
The Road Ahead
Goal of the Project
35,000 targeted landless and smallholding
households in North and Northwestern
Bangladesh (50% women) have increased
incomes and more sustainable livelihoods
through incorporation into a strengthened
milk value chain (2007-2011)
Objectives of the Project
Improve the milk collection system in rural and remote areas
Increase production by improving access to inputs, markets, and
services by mobilizing groups of poor producers and input service provider.
Improve the breeding/Artificial Insemination (AI) network
Ensure access to quality animal health services at the producer level
Improve the policy environment.
Producer organized & trained
Total Number (# of
Women %
36400 (29745)
1162 (524)
Farmer Leader trained
3425 (2443)
Milk Collector trained
308 (28)
Livestock Health Worker
201 (45)
52 (5)
170 (31)
Producer Groups formed
AI Technicians Trained
Dairy Input Shop
Our Target Beneficiaries: A Case
• Hamida Begum is married,
has three children, works
as a day laborer and tends
her family’s two cows
• Average Household:
– Very poor
– Own 0.75 acres of land
– $25 monthly income
– 1-3 cows
SDVC Theory of Change
Why Dairy?
Economic Rationale
Gender Rationale
• Growing demand in urban markets
for fresh milk
• Women’s current role and relative ability
to engage – low barriers to entry
• Growing investment in infrastructure
and processing capacity across
private sector
• Proximity to HH and relatively low labor
• High # of poor households already
involved in dairy
• Potential for doubling income for
impact groups.
• Potential to build on cultural legacy that
valued women’s engagement in dairy as
an economic activity – combating current
norms and trend toward male dominance
as dairy sector matures
Other Factors
* Nutritional value * Supportive enabling environment * Potential for Scale
Activity Area
Intended Outcome
Target women
producers to join
production groups
Increase women’s knowledge, skills, social capital, financial
inclusion, access to inputs and markets, leadership
capacity, productive capacity, incomes
Identify and promote
opportunities for
women to take on
roles traditionally
dominated by men
Improve incomes of most destitute women, challenge
traditional gender norms, improve women’s access to
services tailored to their needs (women for women)
Engage men and
power holders
through sensitization
Increase women’s mobility, promote more balanced home
work balance, increase women’s control over assets and
Promote genderresponsive services
from other market
Improve private sector understanding of women’s needs
and preferences as clients and business partners to
improve women’s inclusion in the dairy sector
Overarching strategy
Use cattle keeping as a platform to instigate positive
change in the daily lives of poor women. Redefine societal
beliefs of what is appropriate work for men and women to
Group Gender Composition
and Income
• Overall, Households within Learning Groups with Female Leaders have incomes that are 3-6%
• Learning Groups with Female Leaders do relatively better as the Phase progresses
Group Leader
Gender & Group
• Group composition plus leader gender affects
income from milk
• Learning Groups with a high percentage of
women producers with a female group leader
perform the best overall.
• Learning Groups with a high percentage of
women producers and a male group leader
perform the least well.
• Learning Groups with a high percentage of men
producers do moderately well regardless of
group leader gender.
Gender, Groups, Ownership & Income
• Households where women own cattle do about 10% better in earning money than
do households where women do not own cattle. However, this relationship is
complex and is changing over time
Households in which women own cattle and women make the cattle selling
decisions are more likely to sell cattle and are more likely to have higher incomes
• Female LHW with basic training
achieve a 33% higher income
increase than men
• Female LHW with advanced training
achieve a 22% higher income
increase than men
• Female LHW with both basic and
advanced training achieve a 17%
higher income increase than men
• Female LHW with loans have a 35%
higher increase in income than men
• Female LHW without loans have a
24% higher increase than men
How we got here
Targeted women farmers, trained farmers leaders, & service
Built the leadership capacity of women farmers’ groups and
informed them about fair prices, animal husbandry and farm
management practices.
Included spouses and other family and community members
during the selection process and in other activities through
sensitization sessions
Developed barrier checklists, followed up the results with
interventions in the household and community level
Engaged men to explore their perspectives & to ensure their
participation in sharing the labor that is put into cattle rearing.
Facilitated network and linkage building for women groups in
particular with private sector and government service providers
M&E System Components
Gender, Assets & Agriculture
- Partnered with IFPRI & Data
- Partnered with IFPRI
- Baseline / Midline / Endline
-Multiple Control Groups to
capture both spillover in SDVC
communities and maintain
counterfactual in ‘like’ areas w/o
- Sex disaggregated data
- Explicit questions on women’s
inclusion, changes in Agency and
-Focus on enhancing qualitative
understanding of change in
women’s empowerment
- To explore and examine the
sustainable impacts on women
and men’s asset acquisition,
asset ownership, and related
impacts on household and
community gender dynamics
-Multi-method approach and
The Tools We Used
Tool type
Explore women’s access to asset ownership, to Research and M&E
mkt & credit and project impact on WE
Life History Analysis
Explore project impact and WE process
Research and M&E
Group performance assessment (ranking) by
members & develop improvement plan
Research and M&E
Group Progress
Regular monitoring on milestones including
Research and M&E
Gender equity format
To aware on gender discrimination and
importance of equity
Gender Awareness
24 hr clock analysis
To reduce women’s workload
Gender Awareness
Asset ownership
pattern analysis
To aware on importance of asset ownership
and access to income
Gender Awareness
Women barrier
Follow up on barriers for women in DVC
Gender Awareness,
research /M&E
Barrier Tree analysis
To aware on barrier, its cause, consequences
Gender Awareness
Peer review
To assess men and women’s perception on
their need and document project impact on the
Gender Awareness,
research and M&E
Select Key Findings
Economic interventions have high spillover ratio, empowerment
interventions do not – IFPRI MTE
Change at agency level fosters an increase in asset ownership
( 7.4% increase in cattle owner ship)
Cattle keeping can be used to empower women to step into new
spaces traditionally closed off by ensuring participation in various
parts of the value chain. (GAAP baseline study)
What we learned/Road Ahead
Women are likely to be empowered when livelihood activities that they
already participate in (i.e. cattle keeping) are strengthened through an
agricultural intervention, but there are two caveats:
– First, women are empowered from cattle keeping because it is close to
the spaces they interact with, and SDVC has to make sure the
infrastructure it builds stays close to women.
– Second, if SDVC wants to continue empowering women to participate
further up the value chain, it should also use the leverage that cattle
keeping activities have to help women participate in new spaces.
SDVC recognizes that there are challenges to women’s participation when
they are exposed to increased production and commercialization of the
dairy value chain, as men are more likely to control activities at this level.
– So, it will use the two points above as a framework to help women
producers enter commercial markets while continuing to empower them.
– It will also engage men’s perspectives and participation in designing &
implementing policies targeted towards women’s empowerment.
Thank You
Learn more at
Or email: Nurul Amin Siddiquee [email protected]
Kakuly Tanvin [email protected]
Shreyas Sreenath [email protected]

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