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CLIMATE OF INDIA
GREAT VARIATION IN
TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL
RECEIVE RAIN BY SEASONAL
WINDS- MONSOON
2
FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
- Tropic of Cancer passing
LATITUDE through India
- Sub-Tropical climate
3
FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
HIMALAYAS
ARAKAN
YOMA
ARAVALLIS
WESTERN
GHATS
- Block the South west monsoon
- Block the bitterly cold winds coming from
Central Asia
- Hence facilitate HT-LP region on the subcontinent to attract monsoon winds
- Divert the South West Monsoon winds
towards
North Indian Plains
- Parallel to Direction of South West Monsoon
- Results into dry climate in Rajasthan
(Specially Western)
- Block the South West Monsoon Winds
- More Rainfall towards Western slopes
4
- Less Rainfall towards Eastern Slopes
FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
- Hill Stations remain cool during summer due
RELIEF
to their elevation
- Coastal Regions have
WATER
Equable/Maritime/Moderate climate
BODIES - Interior Regions have Extreme/Continental
Climate
WESTERN - Originate over Mediterranean Sea
- During Winter – December-January
DISTURBAN - Cause cyclonic rainfall in Punjab and
CES
Haryana
5
FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE OF INDIA
WINDS
SW MONSOON
– On-Shore winds
- Blow during June to September over Indian
Subcontinent
- Bring lot of rain
NE MONSOON
- Off-Shore Winds for most parts of Indian
Subcontinent
- Blow during December to February
- Bring rain in Tamilnadu
6
THE INDIAN SUMMER
TIME
March to May
- Low Pressure over North Indian
PRESSURE
Plain
GRADIENTS - Slight HP on Indian Peninsula
- Comparative HP over Indian Ocean
WINDS
RAINFALL
EVENTS
7
- Winds not attracted towards Indian
Subcontinent due to HP on Peninsula
- Little rainfall in Kerala and West
Bengal
- KALBAISAKHI- Cyclonic rain in
West Bengal
- Mango Shower- Pre-Monsoon Rain
in Kerala (Good for Mango ripening)
- Loo- Hot and Dry winds in Northern
Plains (FATAL)
LOO
THE INDIAN
SUMMER
March to May
LP
KALBAISAKHI
HP
MANGO SHOWER
HP
HP
THE INDIAN MONSOON
TIME
JUNE TO SEPTEMBER
- Low Pressure over Entire subPRESSURE
continent
GRADIENTS
- Comparative HP over Indian Ocean
WINDS
RAINFALL
9
- Warm and moist winds blow from
Indian Ocean to Indian Subcontinent.
- Divide in two branches- Arabian
Sea and Bay of Bengal
Heavy rainfall
- Western slopes of Western Ghats
- Eastern Mountains
- West Bengal
THE INDIAN
MONSOON
JUNE TO SEP
LP
L
P
H
H
THE RETREATING
MONSOON
OCT AND NOV
OCTOBER HEAT
LP
LP
HP
HP
THE INDIAN WINTER
TIME
PRESSURE
GRADIENTS
WINDS
RAINFALL
12
DECEMBER TO FEBRUARY
- High Pressure over Entire subcontinent
- Comparative LP over Indian Ocean
- Offshore winds move from Indian
Sub-continent to Indian Ocean.
- North East to South West
- Winds collect moisture from Bay of
Bengal and rain in Tamilnadu.
WESTERN DISTURBANCES
- Originate over Mediterranean Sea
- Bring frontal rain in Punjab &
Haryana
- Move along foothill of Himalayas
and join NE monsoons
THE INDIAN
WINTER
WESTERN
DISTURBANCES
DEC TO FEB
HP
HP
NORTH EAST
MONSOON
LP
LP
CH 02
SOILS OF INDIA
IMPORTANCE OF COMPONENTS
OF SOIL
COMPONENT
IMPORTANCE
Minerals
Give colour and texture to the soil
Humus
Give fertility to the soil
Moisture
Dissolve minerals so that plants can
absorb them
Air
Allows respiration for plants
SANDY SOIL





> 60% sand; < 10% clay
Well aerated
Easier to cultivate
Dries up easily
Suitable for growth of fruits and vegetables
CLAYEY SOIL



> 60% clay; < 10% sand
Good moisture retention capacity
Difficult to cultivate
LOAMY SOIL





50% sand; 50% clay
Well aerated
Easier to cultivate
Good moisture retention capacity
Suitable for growth of all kinds of crops
ALLUVIAL SOIL
Inland Alluvium (Ganga Basin)
- Coarse texture
 Rich in Potash, Alumina and Lime
 Poor in Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Coastal Alluvium
(Eastern and Western Coast)
Deltaic Alluvium (Delta)
 Rich in Potash, Alumina
and Lime
 ONLY SOIL RICH in
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
ALLUVIAL SOIL - TYPES
Khaddar (Newer alluvium):
It is found in the lower lands in the plains. It is
loamy, porous and MORE FERTILE than Bhangar
as new layers are deposited year after year during
floods.
Bhangar (Older alluvium):
It is found in the higher parts of the plains on
river terraces away from rivers. It contains lumps,
is clayey, non-porous and LESS FERTILE than
Khaddar.
BLACK SOIL
RED SOIL
LATERITE SOIL
MOUNTAIN SOIL
DESERT SOIL
MARSHY SOIL

Found in






Sunderbans of West Bengal
Coastal areas of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu
Terai belt of U.P.
Constantly waterlogged
Contains iron and salts
Good for cultivation of jute
CAUSES OF SOIL EROSION

Natural Causes




Topography
Rainfall
Nature of Soil
Human causes



Deforestation
Overgrazing
Improper farming techniques
CONSERVATION OF SOIL



Afforestation
Restricted grazing
Proper farming techniques





Terrace farming
Construction of bunds
Contour ploughing
Strip Cropping
Dams for flood control
SOIL EROSION IN INDIA

Shiwaliks


North-Eastern States


Floods, sudden rainfall after long, dry spells
Arid Regions


Heavy Rainfall
River banks of Ganga, Yamuna, Chambal


Due to deforestation
Fast blowing wind, little vegetation
Hills of South India

Defective methods of cultivation
SOIL CONSERVATION SCHEMES IN
INDIA



Integrated Watershed Management
Reclamation and Development of Ravine
areas
Control of Shifting agriculture
• Vegetation that grows
– without the interference of man
– adapts itself to the limitations of the natural
environment
Distribution of Natural Vegetation
 Climate
 Soil
 Topography
Utility of Natural Vegetation
 Purify air
 Transpires moisture
 Prevent global warming
 Checks soil erosion
 Natural habitat for animals
 Provides forest products
 Aesthetic pleasure
NATURAL VEGETATION IN INDIA
1. Tropical Evergreen forests
2. Tropical Deciduous or Monsoon Forests
3. Tropical Dry forests
4. Delta or Tidal forests
5. Mountain forests
TROPICAL EVERGREEN FORESTS
CHARACTERISTICS
•Dense growth
•Dark floor
•Large leaves
•Massive variety (not in pure strands)
•Heights vary
•Valuable hardwood
CLIMATE
•Temperature
•Rainfall
ROSEWOOD
Hard, durable and fine grained
Used for making expensive furniture
Found in windward part of Western Ghats
SHISHAM
-
24 ˚C to 27 ˚C
200 cm

Hard wood

Making expensive furniture

House building, railway sleepers

Found in West Bengal and Andaman &
Nicobar
TROPICAL DECIDUOUS VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS
Leaves shed in Spring
Pure strands, Not very dense
Economically very important
CLIMATE
Found in areas of seasonal rainfall
Requires 100-200 cm of rainfall
Also called Monsoon Vegetation
TEAK
Durable timber
Ship Building and Furniture
MP, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
SAL
Hard Wood, Immune to white ant
Railway sleepers
MP, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Assam
SANDALWOOD
Handicrafts, Oil used for perfumery
Karnataka
SEMAL
Soft and White Timber
Match Boxes and Packing cases
Assam, Bihar, Tamil Nadu
MYROBALAN
Fruits used for Dyeing of cotton, wool and silk &
Tanning
MP, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh
TROPICAL DESERT VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS
Long roots
Small leaves
Hard thorns
Sharp spines
Trees widely spaced
Adapt to long dry periods
CLIMATE
25 ˚C to 30 ˚C
< 25 mm rainfall
BABUL
Yields gum
Bark used for tanning
Rajasthan, Gujarat, SW Punjab
KIKAR
Firewood
Medicinal uses
Rajasthan, Gujarat, SW Punjab
TIDAL VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS
Trunk supported by stilted roots
Roots visible during low tide
Some forests are dense
Pneumatophore- Breathing roots
REQUIREMENT
Deltaic region,
SUNDARI
Flavouring agent
Wood used to make boats, houses, firewood
Deltas of Ganga, Godavari
Andaman & Nicobar
KIKAR
Roofing
Making bags
Andaman & Nicobar
MOUNTAIN VEGETATION
CHARACTERISTICS
Needle like leaves
Large trunk
Conical canopy
Fruits cone shaped
REQUIREMENT
Cold temperatures, Mountains
CHIR PINE
Extraction of resin
Used for making turpentine, tea chest
HP, Uttaranchal, J & K, Sikkim
SILVER FIR
Paper, pulp, matches
NW and Eastern Himalayas
DEODAR
Railway sleepers
Construction
HP and J & K
CONSERVATION OF FORESTS
Change in forest cover in tribal areas India
423000
422000
421000
area in sq km
420000
419000
418000
417000
416000
415000
414000
1
1995
2
1998
REASONS
DIMINISHING NATURAL
VEGETATION
DEFORESTATION
FOREST FIRES
MINING
OVERGRAZING
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL VEGETATION
Proper use of forest resources
 without causing any adverse effect on
 our economy
 environment
Forest Research Institutes
Dehradun
Coimbatore
Joint Forest Management
 Involvement of Local communities in forest conservation
 Allow controlled access
 Local institution protects degraded forest
 Beneficiaries of non timber forest product
• Check indiscriminate deforestation
• Prevent overgrazing
• Control shifting cultivation
FOREST
POLICY
• Carry out DEFORESTATION and
REFORESTATION in quick
succession
• Efficient utilization of forest products
Social Forestry
 Afforestation along
 fallow land
 degraded forest land
 Railway line, roads , canal & river
bank
 Panchayat land & common land
Sacred groves
 Traditional institution
 Conservation of biodiversity & forest
 Worship of virgin forests
 Water storage facility
 Rich in medicinal plants
HISTORICAL EVENTS
VAN MAHOTSAV
 Spreading public awareness
CHIPKO MOVEMENT
 Value of forests
CH 04
WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA
IMPORTANCE OF WATER
 Life line of living being
 Essential for agriculture
 Industries
 Hydro electricity generation
 Means of navigation
 Sources of sports & recreation
OCEANS
FRESH
Water Resources of
India
Annual Precipitation Volume
(Including snowfall)
4000 km3
Average Annual Potential flow in Rivers 1869 km3
Estimated Utilizable Water Resources
1122 km3
(i) Surface Water Resources
690 km3
(ii) Ground Water Resources
432 km3
SURFACE WATER USE IN INDIA
DOMESTIC 9%
INDUSTRIAL 2%
AGRICULTURE 89%
WHAT IS THE NEED FOR IRRIGATION?
• RAINFALL in India is seasonal,
uncertain, uneven and sporadic.
• DIFFERENT CROPS have different
water requirements.
• It is indispensable in SEMI ARID
REGIONS of Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh,
Rajasthan etc.
• It is necessary to extend the frontiers of
cultivation in order to fulfill the food
requirements of a GROWING
POPULATION.
MODES OF IRRIGATION –
WELL (PRIMITIVE)
COMMON IN NORTHERN PLAINS
ADVANTAGES
Cheapest source of irrigation.
Can be dug at any convenient place.
Independent source of irrigation.
DISADVANTAGES
Fail to provide water during the dry summer months
Well can water only 1 to 2 hectares of land.
Time consuming.
In many parts it is brackish.
MODES OF IRRIGATION –
TANK (PRIMITIVE)
COMMON IN DECCAN PLATEAU
ADVANTAGES
Simple, easy & cheap
Stores rain water, prevents wastage
Helps in raising the underground water level
Also provide water for domestic purpose`
DISADVANTAGES
 Occupies large area which otherwise could have been
used for cultivation
 Many tanks dry up in the dry months
 Silting of tank is a problem
 Water is lost by evaporation
Reasons for the predominance of tank
irrigation in the Deccan region
Underlying hard rocks does not allow
percolation
The undulating surface forms natural
depression
Construction of well is difficult in the
peninsular region
MODES OF IRRIGATION –
INUNDATION CANAL (PRIMITIVE)
ADVANTAGES
Easily built
Cheap
Useful in controlling floods
DISADVANTAGES
Uncertainty of water supply
Only low lands areas are irrigated
Useful only during floods
MODES OF IRRIGATION –
PERINNIAL CANAL (MODERN)
ADVANTAGES
Perennial source of irrigation
Water rich in sediments
Although initial cost is high, it is quite cheap in
the long run
DISADVANTAGES
Leads to the problem of water logging if canals
are unlined
Problem of soil Salinization or ‘reh’
Marshy areas near canal become breeding
ground for mosquito resulting in Malaria.
Canal systems in North India
 Ganga Canal (GANGA RIVER, UP AND BIHAR)
 Nangal Dam Canal (SUTLEJ RIVER, PUNJAB AND HARYANA)
 Indira Gandhi Canal (SUTLEJ RIVER, DRY PARTS OF RAJASTHAN)
 Chambal Project Canal (CHAMBAL RIVER, MP AND RAJASTHAN)
Canal systems in South India
 Godavari Canal (GODAVARI RIVER, MAHARASHTRA AND AP)
 Tungabhadra Dam Canal (TUNGABHADRA RIVER, KARNATAKA
AND AP)
 Hirakud Dam Canal (MAHANADI RIVER, ORISSA)
 Periyar Project Canal (PERIYAR RIVER, TAMILNADU)
 Mettur Project Canal (KAVERI RIVER, TAMILNADU)
ADVANTAGES OF
MODERN METHODS OF IRRIGATION
More reliable.
Provide irrigation whenever needed.
Easy to operate.
Irrigate a much larger area.
Large amount of water can be pumped
by electric or diesel driven motor.
MULTIPURPOSE PROJECT
• Why is it so called?
Store water for irrigation
Generate electricity
Control flood
Provide afforestation in the catchment areas
Soil conservation
Provide drinking water
Use canal for navigation
Develop pisciculture
Develop recreational centre
CONSERVATION OF WATER RESOURCES
Need
• RAINFALL IS IRREGULAR AND
ERRATIC
• INCREASING DEMAND WITH
INCREASING POPULATION
• PER CAPITA WATER IN INDIA IS
VERY LOW
• AGRICULTURAL DEMAND
• WATER POLLUTION
How do we conserve water?
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
-
NO LOSS OF WATER THROUGH EVAPORATOIN OR SEEPAGE
- EXPENSIVE
DRIP IRRIGATION
- Minimum loss of water due to seepage or evaporation
- Greater yield
- Reduces the chances of weeds
WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT
- Reducing surface run-off
- Recharging groundwater
- Irrigation
RAIN WATER HARVESTING
- Stored for future use
- Used to recharge groundwater
ADVANTAGES
 Can be used by a variety of vehicles
 Single mode transportation from venue to
destination
 Cheap and easy to build
 Ideal for short and medium distances
DISADVANTAGES
 Not economical over long distances
 Not suited for transportation of bulk load
 Cause Pollution
 Prone to Traffic jams
NHAI – NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY OF INDIA
 NHDP-NATINOAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROAGRAM

4
lanes
 Connect important cities
 67000 km
 Built and maintained by
NHAI
 Six
lanes
 Broad divider
 >120 kmph
 Toll roads
STATE HIGHWAY
DISTRICT ROAD
 NHAI
started NHDP in 1998
 Objective

To set up 45000 km of world class highways
 NHDP
to cost Rs. 2,25,000 crore
 NHDP to be implemented in 7 phases
 First phase is 6 or 8 laning of roads
connecting 4 metros (Golden Quadrilateral)
 NHAI
started NHDP in 1998
 To connect 4 metros
 Only National Highways covered
 Will pass through 13 states
 Will benefit 66 important cities
 Total cost Rs. 30000 crore
 Better
and faster transport between major
cities and ports
 This results in benefit to



Industry and trade
Agriculture
Employment
 Increase
demand for labour, cement, steel
and construction material
ADVANTAGES
 Cheap mode of transport
 Transportation of bulk goods over long distances
 Long and comfortable travel
 Can be used by many people at a time
DISADVANTAGES
 Cannot cater to hilly regions
 To be supported by roads
 High initial investment
 Maintenance
NHAI – NATIONAL HIGHWAY AUTHORITY OF INDIA
 NHDP-NATINOAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROAGRAM

Distance between two rail is 1.67mts
 Comprises of 70% of railways
 Installed to connect
Major ports with the other cities
Facilitate export of raw materials

Distance between
the rail is 1mt
 Comprises of 23%
of railways
 Used in UP. Bihar,
Assam, Gujarat,
parts of western
Rajasthan etc.

Distance between rail is 0.76 / 0.61mts

Restricted to hilly areas

Toy train route between Siliguri –
Darjeeling & Shimla – Kalka are worth
mentioning

 All
gauges converted to broad gauge
 Diesel engines replaced the steam engine
 Diesel locomotive works- Chittaranjan (
WB) & Varanasi ( UP)
 Electrification of all railway tracks
undertaken
 Priority to high density sections
 To enable speed
 Volume of traffic
Electrical
engines run with greater
speed and cause less pollution
Computerization of ticketing
Metro rail in Kolkata & Delhi
Super Fast Trains
 Tough
competition with road transport
 Tremendous pressure of traffic
 Unsafe due to poor maintenance
 Inefficient image of railways
 Frequent changes in policies
 Delays in policy implementation
 Obsolete machinery, tracks and equipments
 Heavy consumption of electricity due to
electrification
 Unskilled and untrained workforce
Agenda
Status
Electrification
20059 km
Unigauge
51082 km
Speed
‘Duronto’ trains in ‘Golden
Corridor’
Comfort
‘Yuva’, ‘Matrubhumi’, ‘Izzat’
Booking
E – ticketing
Freight
Dedicated Freight corridor
New tracks
+25000 km by 2020
 Regular
flow of sufficient water
 Sufficient demand for water ways
 Depth of river bed should not be reduced by
siltation
 Level of water not to decrease due to diversion
canals
 Cheapest
 Fuel
mode
efficient
 Suitable
for carrying bulky commodities
•Can transport only along water routes
•To be supported by road or rail transport
•Inland waterways require good flowing water
 Inland
water transport(CWTC Central Water
Transport Corporation)


CWTC transport goods through:
 Ganga
 Brahmaputra
 Hugli
 Sunderban Region
IWAI looks after development & regulation of inland waterways
(IWAI Inland Water Authority of India)
 Coastal
shipping
NW
RIVER
STRETCH
1
Ganga
Allahabad – Haldia
2
Brahmaputra
Sadia – Dhubri
3
West coast canal
&
Udyogmandal canal
Kollam – Kottapuram
 Expansion
of roads & railways
 Irrigation
 Deforestation
 Seasonal
 Slow
resulting in siltation
rainfall
movement
Port
: A place on the coast
 With
docks
 Unloading and distribution of cargo
 By land routes and vice- versa
Environment
friendly
Fuel efficient
Cheapest mode of transport for bulky
goods
Promotes coastal industries
Provides employment
Promotes tourism
Less capital intensive
Ports
not well connected with
hinterland
Not well planned, therefore
 Lacks
facilities
 Very congested
Heavy
pressure on cargo
containers
Aging
coastal fleet
Equal traffic not available to and fro
Undue delays in handling cargo
COAST
PORTS
FEATURES
MUMBAI
Natural harbour; handles most of
India’s foreign trade. Nava Sheva
is the new port
Tidal port located at the eastern
end of Rann of Kutch
KANDLA
WEST
KOCHI
Natural port located on a lagoon
MARMAGAO
Important port in Goa
NEW MANGLORE
A port in Karnataka, handles
export of Iron ore
COAST
EAST
PORTS
FEATURES
TUTICORIN
New port in Tamil Nadu
CHENNAI
Oldest artificial harbour
VISHAKHAPATNAM
Deepest landlocked and
protected port. Also a ship
building centre
PARADEEP
A port in Orissa
HALDIA
New river port made to release
the pressure of Kolkata port
which suffers from the problem
of silting
DGCA
Directorate General of Civil
Aviation- Regulatory Body
Fastest mode of transport
Indispensable for business class
Indispensable for defence purposes
Relatively free of physical barrier
Possible to reach remote parts of
the earth
Limited
carrying capacity
Expensive
Hampers the schedule during rough
weather condition
Competition from foreign airlines
Efficient
services
Better facilities
Frequent
strikes- damages reputation
International
 India’s
airports
international link is maintained by Air
India
 12 international airports at present
Domestic
 Indian
Airports
Airlines- major air carrier
Operates 5 to 7 domestic stations
 17 international stations

 Private

airlines are gaining importance
Air Sahara, Jet Airways, Air Deccan etc.
CH 06- MINERALS OF INDIA
 A substance
 Obtained from the earth’s crust
 Which is of
 Commercial, and
 Economic Value
Types of Minerals
 Metallic
 Iron Ore, Manganese, Copper, Bauxite
 Non-Metallic
 Limestone, Gypsum, Granite, Marble
 Power
 Coal, Petroleum, Uranium
Importance of Minerals
Provide basis for INDUSTRIALISATION,
thereby
Raising
National Income
Providing
Employment Opportunities
Earning
Foreign Exchange
Improving
Standard of Living
Importance to India
Agriculture cannot support rising population
People must take up other occupations
Industrialization need of the hour
Minerals basis for industrialization
Conservation of Mineral Wealth
Efficiency in mining technology
Government’s control over mineral resources
Re Use / Recycling of minerals
MINERAL DEPOSITS - ORISSA
MINERAL
IRON ORE
MANGANESE
COAL
(GONDWANA)
PLACE
REMARKS
Mayurbhanj,
Keonjhar
Sundergadh,
Kalahandi,
Sambalpur
Largest
Producer
Talcher, Sonahat
--
Largest
Producer
MINERAL DEPOSITS - JHARKHAND
MINERAL
PLACE
REMARKS
IRON ORE
Singhbhum, Palamau
Largest
Reserves
BAUXITE
Ranchi & Palamau
--
COAL
(GONDWANA)
Jharia, Bokaro
Largest
MINERAL DEPOSITS - CHHATTISGARH
MINERAL
PLACE
REMARKS
IRON ORE
Durg, Bastar
--
MINERAL DEPOSITS - KARNATAKA
MINERAL
PLACE
REMARKS
IRON ORE
Bellary, Shimoga
--
MANGANESE
Bellary, Shimoga, Tumkur
district
2nd largest
producer
MINERAL DEPOSITS – MADHYA PRADESH
MINERAL
PLACE
REMARKS
BAUXITE
Amarkantak Plateau
&
Balaghat district
--
MANGANESE
Chindwara &
Balaghat districts
--
LIMESTONE
Jabalpur & Satna
--
MINERAL DEPOSITS – GUJARAT
MINERAL
PLACE
BAUXITE
Jamnagar and Surat
COAL (TERTIARY)
Panandhro, Umarsar
LIMESTONE
Sikka & Porbandar
PETROLEUM
Cambay+Ankleshwar (18%)
Mehsana (Newly discovered)
REFINERIES
IPCL Refinery, Koyali, Vaodara
Reliance Refinery, Jamnagar
MINERAL DEPOSITS - OTHERS
STATE
PLACE
MINERAL
TAMIL
NADU
Salem & Coimbatore
BAUXITE
Neyveli, Veeranam
COAL (TERTIARY)
RAJASTHAN
Udaipur & Sawai
Madhopur
LIMESTONE
Palna
COAL (TERTIARY)
Barmer
PETROLEUM (RECENT
DISCOVERY)
UTTARANCHAL
Dehradun and
Pitthoragarh
LIMESTONE
WEST BENGAL
Raniganj, Durgapur
COAL (GONDWANA)
IMPORTANT POINTS
Uses of MINERAL
TYPES
PROPERTIES (IF ANY)
INDIA’S POSITION
Coal Formation – Ideal Conditions
Graben
Sediment
River
Fault
Dead
Plants
Coal
Carbonisation
Sta
ge
Type of Coal
Carbon content
1
Peat
50 – 60%
2
Lignite
60 – 70%
3
Bituminous
70 – 80%
4
Anthracite
80 – 90%
 Formed in the Carboniferous Period
 300 – 360 million years ago
 Laminated Bituminous Coal
 Uses
 Coke in Iron and Steel industry
Gondwana
Coal
 Steam Engines
 Formed in the Tertiary Period
 50 – 60 million years ago
 Lignite
 Uses
 Thermal Electricity
 Steam Engines
Tertiary
Coal
Formation of petroleum
NON PERMEABLE ROCK (SHALE)
NATURAL GAS
PETROLEUM
PERMEABLE ROCK (SANDSTONE / LIMESTONE)
DEAD ORGANISMS
NON PERMEABLE ROCK (SHALE)
CH 07- INDUSTRIES OF INDIA
Role of Industries
Convert gifts of nature to finished goods
Value addition
Create wealth
TO PEOPLE
Employment opportunities
Finished goods available
Raises standard of living
TO COUNTRY
Earns foreign exchange
Raises National Income
Supports development of Infrastructure and Economy

Can be classified on the basis of
1.Raw material
2.Function
3.Nature of finished goods
4.Extent of investment
5.Location
6.Ownership
FACTORS AFFECTING
LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES
Geographical
Economic &
Factors
Commercial Factors
1.Availability
of Raw
Material
2.Water Supply
3.Power Supply
4.Climate
1.Availability
of Labour
2.Transport
3.Government Policies
4.Market
5.Capital
6.Banking Facilities
Producing Cotton Textiles
1.Ginning – separating cotton from seeds
2.Cotton is spun into yarn
3.Yarn woven into cloth
4.Cloth made into garments
Mumbai
•Lancashire of India
•Raw material readily available
•Humid climate
•Power readily available
•Well connected to rest of country
•Labour cheaply available
•Huge market for finished goods
•Port – import & export possible
Ahmedabad
•Manchester of India
•Raw material readily available
•Humid climate
•Power readily available
•Well connected to rest of country
•Huge market for finished goods
•Connected to Kandla and Mumbai ports
Chennai
•Raw material readily available
•Humid climate
•Power readily available
•Well connected to rest of country
•Huge market for finished goods
•Port – import & export possible
•Mills specialise in producing yarn
Kolkata
•Port – import & export possible
•Humid climate
•Power readily available
•Well connected to rest of country
•Labour cheaply available
•Huge market for finished goods
COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRYIMPORTANCE
•Provides clothes to consumers
•Provides employment
•Generates foreign exchange
•Supports other industries
COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY- PROBLEMS
•Irregular supply of raw material
•Quality of raw material
•Competition from other countries
•Competition from other products
•Outdated machinery
•Sick mills

Second most important textile industry

Largest foreign exchange earner

West Bengal is the most important producer
Started in 1855 near Kolkata
 Was export oriented
 Industry suffered setback after independence
 81% of jute growing area went to Bangladesh
 Acute shortage of raw material in India
 Inefficient mills closed down
 73 operating mills at present

Ganga – Brahmaputra delta; the major jute
growing area
 Coal from DVC & Raniganj
 Cheap water transport
 Dense network of road & railways
 Humid climate favours spinning
 Fresh water for retting, washing& dying


Kolkata port helps:
 Import
of machinery
 Export of finished products
Easy availability of capital
 Advantage of early start
 Cheap labour from WB & Bihar

Shortage of raw material
 Obsolete machinery
 High price
 Competition

Foreign countries
 Synthetic packing material


Less demand
Increase jute production
 Replace old machinery
 Diversifying the product range
 Research institutes for development

SILK INDUSTRY
TYPES
• MULBERRY SILK
• Silk worms feed on mulberry leaves
• 90% of total silk output
• Produced mainly in Karnataka, WB, J&K, HP
• NON MULBERRY SILK
• Eri, Muga, & Tussar are non mulberry silk
• Produced in Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand & Meghalaya, MP,
Orissa,
BANGALORE – MYSORE REGION
•Favorable climate for plantation of
Bombyx mori
•Fresh water free from alkaline salt
•New scientific technology
•Inherited skill
SUGAR INDUSTRY
BY
PRODUCTS
• Bagasse
• Rejected cane
• Earlier used as fuel
• Used for manufacturing paper, cardboard &
insulation board
• Molasses
• Dark brown syrup drained during process of
sugar making
• Used for manufacturing Industrial alcohol,
fertilizer, rum &yeast
• Press mud
• Used for making shoe polish, carbon paper, &
extraction of wax
BIHAR & UP- LOCATIONAL FACTOR
•Largest sugar producing belt
•Coal obtained from Jharkhand
•Dense network of railways
•Skilled labour
•Kanpur is the chief distributing
&marketing centre
PROBLEMS
•Subtropical climate
•Short crushing season
•Factories are not within the proximity of the
field
•Outmoded machinery
•Price of sugarcane fixed by government
•Low yield, shortage of raw material
SOUTHWARD MIGRATION
•Suitable geographic condition
•Longer crushing season
•Large landholdings
•Fertilizer, more commonly used
•Factories closer to the fields
•Co operative management
•Sugar Lobby

Earlier, important as cottage industry

Modern industry set up at Kanpur

Tropical country; market is seasonal

Product is of inferior quality

Kashmir famous for carpet making

Availability of raw material

Demand – cold winters

HEP from Bhakra Nangal

Cheap labour

Shortage of raw material

Lack of market

Lack of modern equipment

Low quality of products
Carpets
 Sweaters
 Jerseys
 Socks
 Gloves
 Shawl
 Pullovers


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