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Report
The challenge of measurement in education:
the case of out of school children data
Charles Gale
Research Associate
Education Policy and Data Center, FHI 360
[email protected]
57,247,729
Number of out of school children, primary ages, 2011
(UIS Data Centre, accessed February 2, 2014)
2011 figure
available
No 2011
figure
available
Map created using Stat Planet (http://www.statsilk.com/)
Overview - data gaps and EFA goal 2
Source: 2013 GMR
Overview
How many primary-aged children are out of school?
How many primary-aged children are out of school?
Data source
Variation in ‘primary’
School coverage
 Administrative
 Household survey
 Across countries
 Within countries
 Over time
 Private providers
 Pre-primary
How many primary-aged children are out of school?
Data source
 Administrative
 Household survey
Out of school rate, primary, administrative vs.
household survey sources
70
62
54 56
60
Survey
50
Admin
41
%
40
30
24
23
20
10
0
2
2
9
4
7
1
7
4
13
11
11 11
9
1
17 17
13
32
48
44 42 44
37 34
32
23
13
5
Sources: UIS, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) * ISCED 1
definition of primary
Effect of India discrepancy between survey and
administrative sources on global total of OOSC, primary
90
80
70
76.5 (UIS+HHS)
68.2 (UIS)
millions
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source for global totals UIS Data Centre (accessed 2/16/2014)
Source for difference: EPDC (2013)
India, difference
between HHS
and admin
Global Initiative on Out of School Children
“It should be noted that
there is no one correct figure
on out-of-school children.
The numbers of OOSC from
household survey data
analysis and administrative
data indicate the range of
numbers of OOSC in a
country” (UIS-UNICEF, 2014)
How many primary-aged children are out of school?
Variation in ‘primary’
 Across countries
 Within countries
 Over time
ISCED 1 compared to national primary durations
ISCED 1 (1997)
Country durations (where different from ISCED)
15
14
13
Child age
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
Pakistan
Brazil
Nigeria
Source: UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE)
Uganda
India
Kenya
Ethiopia
Primary duration and entry ages, India, state
compared to national
Primary Entry Primary
State or U/T age
Duration
Primary Age % OOS local % OOS ages
Range
ages
6-10
Goa
5
4
5-8
15%
4%
Kerala
5
4
5-8
7%
1%
Maharashtra
West Bengal
5
5
4
4
5-8
5-8
18%
26%
9%
16%
Orissa
5
5
5-9
15%
14%
Punjab
5
5
5-9
20%
12%
Sikkim
5
5
5-9
33%
20%
Uttar Pradesh
5
5
5-9
28%
20%
Source: International Bureau of Education (IBE), EPDC extraction of DHS dataset
Number of out of school children, primary age,
Burkina Faso
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,032,931
(2010)
1,000,000
800,000
884,687
(2009)
600,000
400,000
200,000
0
1999
2001
2003
2005
Source: UIS Data Centre (accessed 2/2/2014)
2007
2009
2011
How many primary-aged children are out of school?
School coverage
 Private providers
 Pre-primary
Enrollment in unregistered schools, Kenya
Source: APHRC (2008)
Pre-primary attendance by age, Kenya
100
75
in pre-school
out of school
50
25
28
11
-
6
2
9
7
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
Recommendations
Recommendations
Improve timeliness of data or adjust for time trends
80.0
66.9
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
27.3
25.6
15.4
20.0
10.0
0.0
Banladesh 1990 UIS
Bangladesh 2011 DHS
DRC 1999 UIS
Note: UIS estimates were current at time of publication
DRC 2010 MICS
Recommendations
• Streamline basic definitions
– Household survey as alternative source for out of school children
numbers
– Measuring school exclusion for standard age cohort such as 7-14
Ages 7-14
Official primary ages
80
66.2
70
71.7
60
50
40
24.4
30
20
16.0
20.4
25.6
7.8
10
13.4
0
Ghana, DHS 2008
Congo (DRC), MICS 2010
Sudan, South, IPUMS
Census 2008
Kenya, DHS 2009
Recommendations
• Build a broad understanding of data quality concerns
References
Education Policy and Data Center. (2013). Out of school children: Data challenges in measuring access to
education. Washington DC: FHI 360.
Oketch, M., Mutisya, M., Ngware, M., Ezeh, A., & Epari, C. (2008b). Pupil school mobility in urban Kenya
(APHRC Working Paper No. 38). Nairobi: African Population and Health Research Center.
UIS. (2010). Measuring educational participation: Analysis of data quality and methodology based on
ten studies. Montreal: UIS.
UIS Data Centre. Accessed at uis.unesco.org on 2/5/2014.
UIS & UNICEF. (2005). Children out of school: Measuring exclusion from Primary education. Montreal:
UIS.
References
UIS & UNICEF. (2014). Global Initiative on Out of School Children. South Asia Regional Study.
Kathmandu: UNICEF.
UNESCO. (2012). Youth and skills: Putting education to work. Education for All Global Monitoring Report
2012. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO. (2013). Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Education for All Global Monitoring
Report 2013. Paris: UNESCO.
Thank you!
Contact: [email protected]

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