Towards an Integrated Model of Social Protection. - FES

Report
Prof. R. Mupedziswa, PhD
University of Botswana
Presented at “Are Diamonds there Forever ?”
Conference, Lansmore Hotel, Gaborone. 27-28
August, 2014.
e.
Organisation of Paper
 Introduction
 Formal social protection system in Botswana
 Shortfalls of the formal social protection system
 Sustainability concerns
 The case for a social development perspective
 Non-formal social protection system
 Interface - formal/non-formal systems
 “Diversification” through an integrated model?
 Concluding remarks
Basic Argument of Paper
 The paper argues that the government of Botswana has
over the years promoted a social protection system which is
the envy of many sister countries in the SADC region. The
measures have had a major positive impact in respect of the
fight against poverty. However, since the social protection
system in place is highly dependent on revenue from the
country’s mineral wealth, particularly diamonds, long term
sustainability of the social protection system has been
questioned. The paper makes a case for the integration of
formal and non-formal (traditional) social protection
systems, to come up with a social development perspective
of social protection which ultimately promotes self reliance
(as opposed to giving of handouts).
Introduction
 At independence in 1966, Botswana was a poor country
with its people depending on subsistence economy (in
particular cattle/beef.
 Judicious use of mineral resources since the mid 1970s
transformed the country’s fortunes, later resulting in
Botswana attaining middle income status.
 Over the years, Botswana has done quite well economically
compared to several other SADC countries as can be noted
from several basic socioeconomic indicators (See Table 1).
Selected Socioeconomic indicators
of SADC Countries 2010
(GoSA, 2010)
HDI
GINI
Access
Coefficient
to
Average% real
GDP
Improved
GDP
capita (PPP)
water
1990 – 2008*
Growth
per
US$ 2006**
Angola
0,564
58.64
51%
6,28
4, 631.44
Botswana
0.694
60,96
96%
5,32
13, 474.95
DRC
0,389
44,43
46%
-1,15
295.24
Lesotho
0,514
52,5
78%
3,93
Madagascar
0,543
47,24
47%
2,74
879.43
Malawi
0,493
39,02
76%
3,92
694.57
Mauritius
0,804
-
100%
4,88
10, 446.49
Mozambique
0,402
47,11
42%
6,41
782,57
Namibia
0,686
74,33
93%
4,41
6, 009.12
Seychelles
0,845
42,0
87%
3,63
18, 972.52
South Africa
0,683
57,77
93%
2,68
9, 150.58
Swaziland
0,572
50,68
60%
3,56
5, 202.86
Tanzania
0,530
34,62
55%
4,79
1, 164.30
Zambia
0,481
50,74
58%
2,61
1, 241.92
Zimbabwe
N/A
50,1
81%
-0,51
1, 183.81
9.65
Introduction (Continued)
 In the early years, government efforts focused mostly at
economic growth (Ntseane & Solo, 2007).
 With time, it became apparent that economic growth alone
would not be a sufficient condition for total eradication of
poverty (Seleka, et al., 2007).
 The government of Botswana then made deliberate efforts
to introduce a formal social protection system (social
safety nets) for welfare improvement (Ntseane & Solo,
2007).
Formal social protection system Botswana
 Ellis, Devereux & White (2009) have grouped the social




protection measures into 4 broad categories:
(1). Food and basic needs deprivation of the extremely
poor, the destitute, and older persons (e.g. Destitute P.
Programme, Orphans & Vulnerable Children., etc.).
(2) Low yields and other natural disasters (e.g.
Ipelegeng (Ntseane & Solo, 2007).
(3) Impact of HIV & AIDS on households. (e.g. CHBC).
(4) Income and assert depletion resulting from
retirement, sickness, death. (E.g. Pension scheme).
Type
of
Program
Target
Targeting
Coverage
Type
group
Mechanis
&Number of
transfer
of
Value
&
m
Beneficiarie
y
s
transfer
frequenc
Governme
nt
Expenditu
of re
per
Social protection system-Botswana
me
of Botswana
Annual
beneficiar
y
expenditu
re
Destitute
Poor
and
Persons
destitute
means-
Program
individuals
testing
+
(2010),
me
unable
referral
by
almost
to
work
Proxy
community
National;
Food
40, 865
cash
and
Food P450 P214m
P5,596
– 750,
(2008/09)
(2008/09)
Cash P81
all
monthly
rural
representati
ves
Orphan
Under 18s
Categorical
National
Food;
Food:
P254m
P5,286
Care
without
+ referral by
119 registered
school fees,
P450-700
(2008/09)
(2008/09)
Program
biological
community
orphans
uniform,
monthly;
me
or adoptive representati
(2008/2009)
etc.;
other:
clothing
variable
Food
a
48
parent
ves
School
All school
Categorical
Variable; 1
Primary
Secondary
feeding
children in
Primary261,51
meal
schools
P820
Prim/Sec
Governme
3; Secondary
daily;
P208m;
(2009/10)
nt school
165
RADS
National;
097;
(2009/10)
Categorical
National
Food
2
Secondary
meals;
P135m
borders 3.
(2009/10)
Variable,
P216m
Vulnerab
Adults and
le group
pre-school
239, 985
normally
feeding
children at
(2009/2010)
monthly
P35
(2009/10)
nutritional
risk
Old
Age
Pension
All citizens
Categorical;
National;
aged 65+;
register with
91446
DSS
(2009/10)
Cash
P220
P337m
P3,688
Monthly.
(2009/10)
(2009/10)
P359
P30m
P10,250
Monthly
(2009/10)
(2009/10)
Variable
through
local
authority
World
War
2
Veterans
WW vets,
Categorical;
National;
or
beneficiary
2940
register with
Vets
DSS
(2009/10)
surviving
spouse
or
children
through
below 21
local
Cash
WW2
authority
Remote
Remote
Geographica
42,597 mainly
Infrastruct
P32m
P775
Area
communiti
l
in64
ure
(2008/200
(2008/09)
Dwellers
es; Basarwa
means
settlements in
developme
9)
individuals
testing
7 districts
nt;
+categorical
(2008/2009)
for income
+
proxy
community
Ipelegeng
grants
generation
Able-
Self-
National;
P18/day
P221m
P11,384
bodied
selection; in
19,431 person-
Cash
(P24/day
(2009/10)
(2009/10)
adults
principle
years
for
needing
available to
(2009/10)
supervisor
low-waged
all,
employme
rotated
22-day
nt
when over-
cycle
but
s)
subscribed
Commun
Very
ity
individuals
Homebased
Care
ill
Categorical
National
Food,
Food
referral
14130
transport,
to
million
2004/5;3702
counseling,
P500(P120
(2008/09)
2008/9
rehabilitati
0
on
feeding)
doctors
by
up P
tube
Monthly
53
P14,265
(2008/9)
Shortfalls of the formal social
protection system in Botswana.
 Alleviation
of hunger rather than
sustainable livelihoods (Gadibolae (2010).
providing
 Lack of scope to graduate out of schemes, hence
creates dependency syndrome (Ntseane & Solo, 2007).
 Challenges
with targeting, coordination, and
implementation deficiencies (Ntseane & Solo, 2007;
Mupedziswa & Ntseane, 2012; BIDPA & World Bank,
2014).
Shortfalls (continued)
 A recent Social Protection Assessment study by BIDPA in
conjunction with The World Bank noted that, “While
Botswana has many social protection programmes, some of
them are rather small relative to the target group they
intend to cover or to the number of poor people, which
limits their effectiveness” (Balise, 2014).
 The same study reportedly noted
that safety net
programmes were fragmented, are implemented by
different government ministries, in the process diluting
scarce administrative capacity.
Sustainability Concerns.
 Despite the shortfalls, Botswana’s social protection system
remains quite impressive, by SADC standards.
 The authoritative South Africa-based Regional Hunger &
Vulnerability Programme (RHVP) (2011) noted
that
Botswana has a very impressive track record in terms
of long standing commitment to state-led social
protection..........
 Work by other researchers (e.g. Mupedziswa & Ntseane,
2012 a, b) has corroborated the observation that Botswana
has indeed done well in regard to commitment to rolling
out welfare improvement measures.
Sustainability concerns (Continued)
 The Social Protection Assessment study by BIDPA/WB
(2014) indicated that the government spent P5.3 billion
on its social protection programmes in the fiscal year
2012/13.
 This
figure, which represents 4.4% of GDP, is very
impressive and the government ought to be commended
for such commitment.
 However,
concern has been expressed over long term
sustainability of the social protection system, especially
since emphasis is on giving of handouts.
Case for social development
approach
 The existing social protection system predicated on remedial
approach (handouts), though noble, should be viewed as only a
short term measure since it is ‘relief’-oriented.
 For the long term, the government may wish to consider ways of
working towards promoting the social development perspective.
 The social development approach emphasises capacity building
and empowerment towards self reliance (Elliot, 2012).
 The approach appreciates the connection between social and
economic goals, and stresses the idea of planned change. Social
justice is adjudged critical. (Hall, 1990).
Lessons from the River Story
 The analogy by the American social organiser of the last century, Saul Alinsky of the ‘River
Story’ might be instructive in appreciating the need for a social development perspective.
 The analogy of the leaking water tap too corroborates the need to promote a social
development approach.
 The Chinese saying about catching fish is moulded along similar lines………..
Non-formal social protection
system
 The non-formal system may be the missing ingredient
towards realisation of the social development approach.
 Traditionally Botswana depended on non-formal social
protection measures, steeped in people’s cultural beliefs,
norms and values, with botho spirit playing a key role.
 Social groups (e.g. community, kinship ties, family, etc.
operated on basis of such values as (e.g. self-help, inherent
solidarity, etc )(Olivier, Kaseke & Mpedi, 2008).
Non-formal social protection
system (examples)
 Tribal granaries (defalana), milkpad cattle (kgamelo), tribal
fields (masotla), all of which fell directly under regulation
of the Chief.
 Self-organised mutual support systems e.g. mafisa
(lending cattle to the poor) ; go tshwara teu or bodisa (poor
looked after rich people’s cattle in return for a cow); majako
(poor worked in field of rich in return for portion of
harvest); letsema/molaletsa (voluntary work for poor), etc.
 Modern-day non-formal social protection initiatives
include burial societies; credit and savings associations.
Interface between formal & nonformal social protection systems
Type of Vulnerability
Formal Social Protection
Non-Formal Social
Initiatives
Protection
Initiatives
Food and basic needs deprivation Destitute Persons Programme
of
the
extremely
poor,
the Remote
destitute and older persons
Area
Dwellers Neighbourhood
Programme
Vulnerable
Extended family
support
Groups
Feeding Chiefs granary
Programme
School Feeding Programme
Needy Students Allowance
Food and basic needs deprivation Old Age Pension
Extended family
of older people
Neighbourhood
World War II Veteran Scheme
support
Chiefs granary
Impacts of HIV and AIDS
Orphan Care Programme
Burial societies
Community Home Based Care
Savings and Credit
Associations
Low yields and other natural Ipelegeng
disasters
Labour based Drought Relief Letsema
Programmes
Retirement,
Majako
sickness, Government Pension Scheme
occupational injuries and death
Extended family
Extended family
Health Insurance Schemes
Burial Societies
Workmen’s Compensation
Neighbourhood
Maternity Benefits
Support
Savings and Credit
associations
Diversification of social protection
systems through their integration ?
 The non formal social protection system essentially
‘persists’ in Botswana today essentially because it still has
an important role to play.
 RHVP (2011) has expressed concern that while Botswana
has developed an impressive social protection system, only
a small segment of the population does benefit.
 Concern has also been voiced over such issues as
inadequacy and restrictive nature of the provisions in
the formal social protection system.
Diversification through
integration (continued)
 It is for these and related reasons that the paper proposes
integration of the formal and non formal social protection
systems.
 Ideally debate should focus on which initiatives from the two
systems are amenable to integration and which aren’t.
 If the idea of integration were to be taken on, the first step would
probably be to identify those initiatives with potential, and
then find ways of building synergies between them.
 As Diagram 1 shows, integration is not an end in itself, but rather
should be viewed as a means to an end (i.e. realisation of the
social development approach and ultimately poverty eradication.
Integrated social protection model:
Steps towards poverty eradication
Formal social
protection system
Integrated approach - Social developmental orientation - Capacity build - Self-reliance - Poverty eradication
Non-formal
social protection
system
Concluding remarks
 Government of Botswana has done extremely well in
terms of commitment to state-led social protection
initiatives.
 However questions have remained regarding long term
sustainability of the initiatives.
 There is however need for an integrated approach
which would bring together the formal and non
formal social protection systems.
 The idea would be to promote a social development
approach which in turn would help build capacities
for self reliance, and ultimately poverty eradication.

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