THE INTERNET IS FOREVER Part IV: Piracy and Hacking WHAT IS PIRACY? 1. An act of robbery on the high seas; an act resembling such robbery. 2. Robbery on the high seas. 3. The unauthorized use of another's production, invention, or conception especially in infringement of a copyright 4. The illicit accessing of broadcast signals. WHAT IS A COPYRIGHT? • Legal concept for protecting expressions of ideas. • Protected idea must be original. • Does not protect titles, symbols, short phrases, or names that indicate source of goods (i.e. Tide, iPhone, Kodak – these are trademarks) What can be copyrighted? • Examples – Books – Music – Television – Art – Photographs songs movies art books HOW LONG DOES A COPYRIGHT LAST? • A copyright begins as soon as the work is created. • A copyright is owned by the author for his or her whole life plus 70 years. • When the copyright expires, everyone is free to copy and enjoy the work. EXCLUSIVE RIGHTS FOR COPYRIGHT OWNERS • Make copies/reproduce work. • Distribute copies of work. • Publicly perform work. • Publicly display work. HOW CAN I TELL IF SOMETHING IS COPYRIGHTED? • If you see the copyright symbol, you know there is a claim of copyright. • If you see an FBI warning, you know there is copyright protection. • Absence of the notice is not permission to copy. © WHY IS IT WRONG TO COPY AN ARTIST’S WORK WITHOUT PERMISSION? CONSEQUENCES OF PIRACY •Cancellation of your family’s internet account. •Fines. •Jail. Brianna LaHara’s Story • 12 year old honors student. • Downloaded music from Kazaa. • Her mother paid for Kazaa, so she thought it was ok. • She was sued, and her mother settled the case for $2,000 and an apology. Jammie Thomas-Rasset • Mother of four in Minnesota. • She was accused of downloading 24 songs from Kazaa. • Jammie told the Court that she did not download the songs. • At the conclusion of her second trial, she was fined 1.9 million dollars or $62,500 per song. • It would have cost $24 to legally download the 24 songs on iTunes. Fredrik Neij, Gottfrid Svartholm, and Peter Sunde • The Pirate Bay was a website that helped people throughout the world steal copyrighted material. • The website was closed, and the founders of Pirate Bay website were sentenced to jail time and ordered to pay 6.7 million dollars. ANTI-PIRACY TECHNOLOGY • Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo, and others have security technologies that prevent people from illegally copying their games and videos. • These technologies are sometimes referred to as digital rights management or “DRM”. • It is illegal to use a technology or a program of any kind to get around or avoid the antipiracy protections on DVDs, CDs, games, etc. Example of Illegally Going Around DRM Technology • Pirates may add a “modchip” to their video game consoles such as Playstation or Xbox. • These modchips void the technologies that protect against illegal copying, region coding, and other digital rights management. • Courts have found those who sell modchips responsible for violating federal laws. • Sony Computer Entertainment America v. Divineo, Inc., 457 F. Supp. 2d 957 (N.D. Cal. 2006) PIRACY AND APPS • Pirates use websites to distribute “cracked apps,” in other words, smart phone or tablet applications that have been reconfigured to allow unlimited copying. • Using these pirated apps normally requires “jailbreaking” the iPhone or other smart phone and downloading Cydia. • The sites used by pirates are always changing because they are often shutdown my law enforcement. • Pirating apps is against the law and has the same penalties as copying music. Anti-Piracy Technology • Internet service providers (ISP) help movie and record companies identify piracy by tracking internet usage. • Using your internet protocol address, the ISP can figure out where you live and what you have downloaded. • Your ISP may cancel your family’s account if it suspects internet piracy. HOW IS DOWNLOADING A SONG WITHOUT THE ARTIST’S PERMISSION SIMILAR TO SHOPLIFTING A CD OR SNEAKING INTO A MOVIE WITHOUT A TICKET? EXAMPLES OF WEBSITES OR METHODS FOR PIRACY Examples of Places to Legally Download or Stream Works on the Internet “FAIR USE” IN COPYRIGHT LAW • Generally, when using a copyrighted work for educational and not-for-profit purposes it is okay to use a copy. • Four considerations are balanced to determine if it is fair to use a copy without paying for the copyrighted work. 1. The purpose of making the copy. (Is it for a commercial good or for educational purposes?) 2. The nature of the work. (Has the work been published? Is it non-fiction or fiction?) 3. The amount of the work used. (Was there only one paragraph in a twenty page paper copied?) 4. The effect on the potential market for the work. (Does copying the work reduce the likelihood someone will pay for the work?) WHAT IS HACKING? • To gain access to a computer illegally. • Guessing email and Facebook passwords is a form of hacking. Sarah Palin’s Email Hacked • In 2008, David Kernell, a 24 year old college student guessed the email password of Sarah Palin. • He took her emails and distributed them without her permission. • He was convicted of unauthorized access to a protected computer and destroying records to impede a federal investigation. • He served 11 months in jail. Florida man hacks celebrity emails • Christopher Chaney, a 35 year old Florida resident, hacked the email accounts to Scarlett Johansson, Christina Aguilera, and Mila Kunis. • In 2012, he plead guilty to nine felony counts including unauthorized access to a computer and wiretapping. • He faces up to 60 years in prison. • He guessed the celebrities’ email passwords by studying their life in magazines and twitter. • Remember to protect yourself from hackers by using secure passwords. Hacking Facebook Accounts • In 2010, a California teen received a text message with a classmate’s email password. • He logged into her email and changed her Facebook password. • He then changed her profile description, sent messages to male classmates, and posted on her wall in a vulgar manner. • He was charged with identity theft. • He was found guilty and put in juvenile detention. CONCLUSIONS • Piracy and hacking are illegal and can result in punishment from your school, your parents and even the police. • What that we talked about today did you already know? • What didn’t you already know? • What shocked you? • What would you want to tell someone else?