Distinguishing among Types of Domestic Violence

Report
Distinguishing Among
Types of Domestic
Violence
Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D.
Sociology, Women's Studies, and African and
African American Studies
Penn State
Second International
Conference on Violence
Against Women
Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with
the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991
CRI-VIFF
Montréal, Québec
May 30, 2011
McKeesport, PA
 Are Women Really as Violent as
 Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
 Explaining the ostensible contradictions
A
Men?
Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
 The
three major types
 Gender differences and sampling biases
 Dramatic Differences Among the Types
 Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
 A few health and relationship consequences
 Different risk factors for perpetration
 Policy
Implications
The Anti-feminist Backlash
Deny the Role of Gender
Attack Feminist Research
Attack Programs that Address Violence against Women
 “Men
as likely to suffer spousal abuse, Statscan
says.” Globe and Mail July 27, 2002 (Web site)
 “Feminist
ideologues ignore research that shows
domestic violence is just as often started by women
as by men.” Pittsburgh Post Gazette July 26, 2009
 “…the
Ontario Government may be in violation of
their obligations… [because] the existing network of
shelters for victims of family violence exclude[s]
men….” The Men’s Project, February 2009: Submission to the Ontario
Ministry of the Attorney General
General Surveys Indicate That
Women Are as Violent as Men
Heterosexual intimate partner violence
by gender
Data Source
Men
Women
Canada, GSS, 2009
New Zealand, young adults, 2002
U.S., NSFH, 1988
U.S., NFVS, 1975—the beginning
51%
39%
53%
51%
49%
61%
47%
49%
But Agency Studies Indicate That
Men Are the Batterers
Heterosexual intimate partner violence
by gender
Data Source
Men
Women
Canada, Spousal Homicide, 1995-2005
U.S., FBI, Partner Assault,1996-2001
82%
75%
18%
25%
U.K., Emergency Rooms, 1988
Santa Barbara, CA, Police, 1983
Ontario, Family Court, 1982
Cleveland, Divorce Court, 1966
83%
94%
94%
92%
17%
6%
6%
8%
Differentiating Among Types of
Intimate Partner Violence
Explains the Contradictions
 There
is more than one type of partner violence
 One
type is perpetrated mostly by men, another
by both men and women
 Agency
studies are dominated by the maleperpetrated type, general surveys by the
gender-symmetric type
 Are Women Really as Violent as
 Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
 Explaining the ostensible contradictions
A
Men?
Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
 The
three major types
 Gender differences and sampling biases
 Dramatic Differences Among the Types
 Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
 A few health and relationship consequences
 Different risk factors for perpetration
 Policy
Implications
Intimate Terrorism
Violent Coercive Control
Violent Resistance
Resisting the Intimate Terrorist
Situational Couple Violence
Situationally-provoked Violence
Intimate Terrorism/Domestic Violence
Adapted from
Pence &
Paymar, 1993.
Intimate Terrorism
Violent Coercive Control

Pattern of violent coercive control




The basic pattern is the use of multiple control
tactics (violent and non-violent) to attempt to take
general control over one’s partner
Specific control tactics vary from case to case,
involving different combinations of economic
control, isolation, emotional abuse, intimidation,
use of children, and other control tactics
In heterosexual relationships, perpetrated
primarily but not exclusively by men
Generally rare, but common in agency settings
Violent Resistance
Resisting the Intimate Terrorist

Many victims respond with violence

Not necessarily self-defense
In heterosexual relationships, most violent
resistors desist and turn to other tactics to
mitigate the violence or to escape

Situational Couple Violence
Situationally-provoked Violence
Conflicts turn into arguments that escalate
 Both men and women do this



Huge variability in patterns and causes



Men’s violence more likely to injure and frighten
40% only one incident, but can involve chronic
and/or severe violence
Variable causes of chronic SCV include chronic
conflict, substance abuse, anger issues,
communication issues, and others
By far the most common type
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetry
by Type of Violence
(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives)
Husbands
Intimate terrorism
97%
Wives
3%
Violent resistance
4%
96%
77
Situational couple violence
56%
44%
146
2000s Britain: IT 87% male; VR 10% male; SCV 45% male
N
97
The Biases of Major Sampling Plans
(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent men)
General
Sample
(n = 37)
Court
Sample
(n = 34)
Shelter
Sample
(n = 50)
Intimate terrorism
14%
68%
78%
Violent resistance
0%
0%
2%
Situational couple violence
86%
29%
18%
2000s Britain: Intimate terrorism by sample type: General sample = 13%, Shelter sample = 88%.
 Are Women Really as Violent as
 Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
 Explaining the ostensible contradictions
A
Men?
Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
 The
three major types
 Gender differences and sampling biases
 Dramatic Differences Among the Types
 Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
 A few health and relationship consequences
 Different risk factors for perpetration
 Policy
Implications
Johnson, 2006
Mixed sample, married
Pittsburgh, 1970s
76% severe
75% escalated
29% mutual
1/25
couples
28% severe
28% escalated
69% mutual
1/8
couples
Ansara & Hindin, 2010
Previous/current partners
Canadian GSS 2004
57% frequent violence
60% feared for life
8% frequent violence
9% feared for life
Health and Relationship Outcomes
by Type of Male Violence
SCV
IT
Severe injury
Canada, GSS+
5%
21%
***
Post-traumatic stress
U.S., NVAW++
37%
79%
***
Low marital happiness Pittsburgh
13%
50%
***
Left more than once
7%
29%
***
+Hospital treatment
***p < .001
U.S., NVAW
++ Percent above the median for female victims of partner violence
Different Risk Factors
Studies by Various Social Scientists
Different Locations and Sample Types
Different Measures
 Intergenerational
 SCV
“transmission”
d = .11
IT d = .35
 Marriage
 SCV
b = -.62
 Gender
 SCV
IT b = .58
traditionalism
d = -.14
IT d = .80
 Are Women Really as Violent as
 Anti-feminist politics and conflicting data
 Explaining the ostensible contradictions
A
Men?
Control-based Typology of Partner Violence
 The
three major types
 Gender differences and sampling biases
 Dramatic Differences Among the Types
 Violence severity, frequency, mutuality, and escalation
 A few health and relationship consequences
 Different risk factors for perpetration
 Policy
Implications
Different Intervention Effects
Outcomes of Duluth-type
Batterer Intervention Program
(Thirteen Months Post-adjudication)
SCV
Dependent
IT
Antisocial
IT
Completed
Program
77%
38%
9%
No re-arrest
82%
62%
54%
No repeat
violence
45%
38%
12%
Eckhardt et al., 2008
Screening/Triage
 Different
models for different clients
 To screen we need to assess coercive
control and violence for both partners
 Safety first!
 Initially
assume the worst (intimate terrorism)
 If SCV seems likely, try individual application
of other approaches
 If you are confidant that you are dealing with
SCV, and safety has been demonstrated
over time, you can move to couple
approaches with protections in place
Primary Prevention/Education
 Intimate
terrorism
 Equality
 Violent
and respect
resistance
 Danger
signs
 Safety planning
 Entrapment/escape issues
 Situational
 Sources
couple violence
of conflict
 Anger management tactics
 Communication
 Substance abuse
Intervention with Perpetrators
Hold them all accountable in the criminal justice system
to provide an essential motivation for change
 Intimate
terrorism
 Control-focused
 Violent
education
resistance
 Alternatives
to violence/Safety planning
 Neutralize entrapment
 Situational
 Sources
couple violence
of conflict
 Anger management
 Communication counseling
 Substance abuse rehab
Intervention for Survivors
 Intimate
terrorism
 Long-term
support
 Alternatives to violent resistance
 Empowerment to leave
 Transitional support
 Situational
 Sources
couple violence
of conflict
 Anger management
 Communication counseling
 Substance abuse rehab
Custody and Access Issues
 Manipulative
accusations
 Resources for thorough evaluation
 Custody/access options
 Joint
custody/Co-parenting
 Parallel parenting, minimal couple contact
 Supervised exchanges
 Supervised access
 No contact
Two Big Takeaway Points
 General
samples provide useful information about
situational couple violence
Situational couple violence is the most common type of
intimate partner violence
 It is gender symmetric in terms of perpetration, not in terms of
impact
 It is incredibly variable, with many different causes

 Agency
samples provide useful information about intimate
terrorism and violent resistance
Intimate terrorism is primarily male-perpetrated; gender
inequality is central
 Violent resistors are primarily female; we still know little about
causes, other than the partner’s behavior

Different types of partner violence have…
 Different
causes
 Different developmental trajectories
 Different effects
 Different implications for policy and practice
We make big mistakes if we don’t
make big distinctions.
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter
Safety
Support
Information
Advocacy
Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with
the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991
Philadelphia, PA shelter

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