LED Lighting Design

Report
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Date
Title
LED Lighting Design
CONFIDENTIAL: All contents copyright of Illinois Tool Works, Inc. (ITW). The ITW Photonics Group, Lumex, Cal Sensors and Opto Diode logos are registered trademarks of ITW, Inc. Copyright © 2011, all rights reserved..˙
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LED Lighting Design
Overview
• Benefits of LED Lighting
• Applications
• Identifying the Quality LED Technology
• Identifying a Quality LED Supplier
• Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products
• Lumex Custom Capabilities
Content
• 21 Pages
Learning Time
• 15 Minutes
Welcome to the Lumex LED Lighting Design training module. This module looks at the advantages and
considerations of designing general illumination products with LED technology. It also includes discussions of using
LEDs to their best advantage based on a number of unique characteristics and the importance of matching the right
LED solutions to the right supplier.
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Benefits of LED Lighting
ECONOMIC
PERFORMANCE
TECHNICAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
Long life up to
and beyond
20,000 hours.
lifetime –
LEDs offer
greater color
mixing.
Compact size
LEDs are more
energy efficient.
The energy
consumed by one
LED is the
equivalent of 50
halogen bulbs.
Combined with
compact size,
offers wider range
of design options.
Long life
Shock resistant
Instant on/off
Coupled with
longevity, LED
bulbs = fewer
lamps required to
be disposed of.
The world of LED lighting continues to make rapid advancements. These advancements offer a wide range of benefits
to general illumination, from energy efficiency and design enhancement, to extended life and technical improvements
such as compact size, shock resistance and more. The benefits of LEDs are literally transforming the process of
lighting design. Not only are LEDs more cost effective in the long run, they use less energy, are more durable and
effective and are the healthier choice for a greener tomorrow.
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Long Lifetime
LED Life – Compared with Conventional Light Sources
1,000 Hours
6,000 Hours
20,000 Hours
One of the most significant assets of LEDs in lighting is life hours. LEDs life goes far beyond even the closest lighting
technology, which is currently cold cathode florescent lamps (CCFL), up to and beyond 20,000 hours of continuous
operation. In addition, LED lights do not fail catastrophically as they age unlike both incandescent and CCFL. 20,000
hours is the half life, which means that the LED light is still illuminated, but has dimmed by about half.
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Energy Savings
Total
Hours
per
Month
kWh
Cost
per
Month
(U.S. $)
Cost per
Year per
Bulb (U.S. $)
Cost per
Year with
50 Bulbs
(U.S. $)
Savings
per Year
Watt
Rating
Hours
on Per
Day
Lumex MR16
LED Bulb
7
8
240
1.12
0.1232
1.4784
73.92
599.68
Incandescent
MR16
60
8
240
9.6
1.056
12.672
633.60
0.00
Note: Businesses tend to get a lower kWh rate, but use significantly more bulbs than residences.
LEDs are among the most efficient lighting sources available. LEDs are different simply they use much less power, yet
are still able to provide as much lighting as needed. LED lights are typically rated from 1 watt to 5 watts, which is in
stark contrast from the levels of power typical for general illumination today. A 5 watt LED bulb is likely to give provide
the same amount of brightness as a 35 watt halogen bulb, or a 60 watt filament bulb. Because LEDs provide just as
much light, but utilize far less power, it’s inevitable that regardless of the model LED, you will be saving money on
operating costs.
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Going Green
LEDs are a vastly superior solution to existing lighting
technologies, which can lead to dramatic energy savings.
Using LEDs in lighting has other, broader benefits. They reduce the amount of overall mercury being introduced into
the waste stream. Coal burning power plant emissions contain mercury which is released once the coal is burned. By
reducing the amount of energy consumed by lighting, LEDs help to reduce the mercury emissions. In addition, CCFL’s
on average contain 4mg of mercury which could be released into the ecosystem if not properly disposed. Finally, a 7
watt MR16 LED lamp creates less than 25% of the CO2 emissions of an equivalent 40-watt incandescent lamp.
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Applications
The many benefits of LED lighting make them a natural choice for an ever-expanding range of lighting applications.
Virtually every industry is now able to incorporate an LED-based solution for its design needs. Not to mention, recent
federal mandates are now quickly contributing to the acceptance and adoption of LEDs for general lighting.
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Identifying the Quality LED Technology
6 Factors to
Consider when
Selecting LED
Technology
Factor 1:
Factor 2:
Factor 3:
Factor 4:
Factor 5:
Factor 6:
Binning
Color Rendering Index
Color Temperatures
Viewing Angles
Thermal Management
Lumens
LEDs are the most widely varying type of lighting solution in the market today. However before even looking at which
model LED to choose, there is a lot to consider. It’s not just about how much output an LED can produce. Simply
choosing the LED with the most raw lumen output is not going to make the best light if you don’t consider a few
additional fundamentals such as lens type, connectors or thermal management. With a wide selection of choices
regarding color, brightness, power and viewing angles, it’s important to take a moment to consider your lighting needs,
to make sure you choose the most suitable LED for your lighting needs.
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Binning
Sorting, also known as Binning, is a vital part of the LED selection process. The binning process can assist with
providing consistent color and output, as well as optical alignment. LED chips are grown in a batch process known as
wafers and can include thousands of LED chips on each wafer. Because there are some LED chips, in any single
wafer, that are closer in performance to each other, they are lumped into a group called a ‘bin’. Each LED chip, within
a wafer, has a unique set of characteristics such as: forward voltage, brightness (intensity), color. In other words, no 2
LED chips will be exactly the same. In LED lighting, binning is critical to ensuring that lighting is consistent and does
not appear like the example above.
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Color Rendering Index
CRI = 90
CRI = 70
CRI = 50
Color rendering generally refers to how colors appear when illuminated by a light source. Most objects are not a single
color, but a combination of many colors. Light sources that are deficient in certain colors may change the apparent
color of an object. The Color Rendition Index or CRI is a 1-100 scale that measures a light source's ability to render
colors the same way as direct sunlight. The higher the rating, the closer the light source is to replicating sunlight. In the
case of LEDs, some of the best light sources have an average CRI of somewhere between 70-90. When reviewing
your application, consider how important it is to have a high CRI. In the case of illuminating a commercial
or residential cooler, the CRI may be extremely important to show the true color of perishable food.
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Color Considerations
Cool
Neutral
White
5000 ~ 7000
Kelvin Temp
4000
Kelvin Temp
2700 ~ 3500
Kelvin Temp
Color has been one of the key challenges facing white LEDs as a general light source. LED color temperature is
measured on the Kelvin scale. The lower the temperature, the more yellow-tinged the LED will be, or what is referred
to as Warm White. The higher the Kelvin scale, the whiter, more bright the LED, which is referred to as Cool White.
Yellow and red colors are considered warm. Blue and green colors are considered cool. The ideal color temperature
depends on the usage. For instance, a cool white LED would be idea for a jewelry store showcase or hospital lighting,
whereas warm white LEDs would be ideally used for illumination in homes, or hotel lobbies.
Neutral White is considered best for offices areas, libraries or retail stores.
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Viewing Angles
TitanBrite™
SSL-LX100T123
QuasarBrite™
SML-H1505
QuasarBrite™
SML-LX0404SIUPGUSB
The term viewing angle refers to the a calculation that 50% of the total number of lumens reported for an LED will be
captured within the reported viewing angle. For example, LEDs with a 120˚ viewing angle have 50% of their total light
output in the 120˚ beam angle. The balance of the light comes out as far as 180˚. When choosing an LED, it is
important to know how it will be used and where it will be installed and whether the amount of light displayed should
have a very narrow or broad beam.
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Thermal Management
Optimal heat dissipation is key to quality high power LED performance. Non-optimal heat dissipation can lead to:
loss in efficacy, a decrease in life hours and color degradation. The crux of ensuring optimal heat dissipation is
junction temperature management. The challenge is to keep a high-powered LED below the 125°C failure point. To
keep the junction temperature as low as possible and well below the 125°C failure point, there are four key elements
to consider: Ambient temperature, Substrate material as well as the drive current and packaging and assembly of the
LED.
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Removing the Heat
Air Cooling
Water Cooling
There are both active and passive cooling techniques for achieving desired junction temperature. Passive techniques
pertain largely to the basic composition of the high power LED technology whereas active cooling techniques require
additional power. The four most commonly used passive cooling techniques are thermal paste, metal core PCBs
(MCPCB), heat sinks and passive convection. Active cooling techniques require additional power input. Three of the
most common active cooling techniques include fans, water cooling, and thermoelectric cooling. A quality supplier will
provide customers with expert design support on a variety of active and passive cooling techniques
designed to minimize junction temperature.
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Look for the Lumens
Common Light Sources
Color Temperature & CRI Values
Light Source
Color
Temp
CRI
Value
Candle
1,700k
100 CRI
Incandescent Bulb
2,700k
100 CRI
Halogen Lamp
3,200k
95 CRI
5-6,000k
100 CRI
Daylight Bulb
6,400k
80 CRI
Lumex TitanBrite 3-Watt LED
3,000k
80-85 CRI
Lumex TitanBrite 5-Watt LED
6,000k
70-80 CRI
Natural Sunlight
There are a number of different types of LEDs on the market, often with very different characteristics. LEDs differ from
traditional light sources in that it can be difficult to tell the brightness of a particular bulb simply looking at the wattage.
A effective LED will have a balance between lifetime and brightness. A more reliable way of determining the
brightness is to compare the light output. This is measured in lumens. A higher lumen output means a brighter bulb always choose as high a lumen output as necessary. Although some LEDs may appear to be more powerful as they
have a higher wattage, but superior LEDs will have a higher lumen output, often at a lower wattage,
meaning they are more efficient.
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Identifying a Quality LED Supplier
5 Things to
Look for
when
Selecting
LED
Supplier
1:
Complimentary Technology Integration & Design Support
2:
Standard AND Custom Technologies
3:
Focus on Application Needs
4:
Focus on Innovation
5:
Streamline Entire Production Process
What are the top 5 things to look for when selecting an LED supplier: 1) Complimentary technology integration and
design support. 2) standard and custom technologies. 3) focus on application needs. 4) Focus on innovation
5) Streamline entire production processes.
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Complimentary Technology Integration
& Design Support for Custom Lighting Solutions
COST
LEAD TIME
•
Tooling often
waived for
certain quantities
• Down from 12-16
weeks only a few
years ago
•
Total cost of
ownership is
often lower
• Custom LEDs 2-4
weeks
•
Having the right
part for the right
application
• Custom Light
Panels 4-6 weeks
PRODUCT
RELIABILITY
• < 50 ~ 100 PPM
For much of the past 20 years, custom LED technologies were commonly associated with enhanced applicationspecific performance but also with higher costs, long lead times and reduced reliability. Over the past five yearstechnological advancements have completely redefined how custom technology performs on each of these fronts. The
cost of tooling materials and often the included design engineering support from the supplier provides high return on
investment and has come down dramatically in cost. Second, as custom tooling has been simplified and quality
suppliers have developed expertise in the specific challenges of custom technology development, processes have
been streamlined resulting in shorter lead times. Finally, quality suppliers have developed significant expertise in
developing consistently high-quality custom LEDs and integrated lighting solutions. A good supplier
can deliver products with less than 50 to 100 parts per million (PPM) failure rates.
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Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products
TitanBrite™
High Power
LEDs
QuantumBrite™
Edge Lit and Chips on
Board Backlights
InfoVue™
TFT, Extreme Temp, and
Monochromatic Graphic,
Character and Numeric LCDs
MicronSensIR™
Emitters and Detectors
QuasarBrite™
SMD and Thru-Hole LEDs
LED Displays
LED Arrays and Light Bars
Infrared and UV LEDs
TransBrite™
Light Pipes
SunBrite™
General Illumination
Download a copy of
Lumex’s Full Product
Capabilities Poster.
Lumex offers a broad portfolio of standard products, ranging from general illumination to high power LEDs, light pipe,
LCDs and backlights and our extensive line of surface-mount and through-hole LEDs. Lumex is dedicated to
continuing to offer the latest innovation in our full product line. Recent releases include our new TitanBrite 2-Watt, 3Watt and 5-Watt high power LEDs, as well as our TitanBrite 3-Watt RGB LED.
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Custom Technology – Case Study
The Challenge
Illuminate the cavity of an ice and water dispenser with:
1. higher intensity
2. targeted light distribution to the activation panels,
water dispenser and ice dispenser
3. Cool white color
4. energy savings
5. Matched light intensity and color
6. easily field replaceable
Additional case studies
illustrating Lumex’s unique
custom technology
solutions are available at
www.lumex.com.
The Lumex Solution
The Lumex Technical Design Team reviewed the options and quickly concluded that using the high power LED would
create additional challenges including heat management, shorter life hours and uneven light distribution in the cavity.
As an alternative, we proposed using 3 white 5mm LEDs in a small molded module with an integrated PCB and quick
disconnect 2-pin connector at the end of a wire assembly. The LEDs would all be color and intensity matched so that
every LED within the module and every module would have the same 2700° Kelvin cold color temperature. This
solution would also allow light to be pointed from each of the three LEDs into the exact location in the cavity where
light was needed, rather than relying on over-saturating the entire cavity with light.
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Lumex Custom Capabilities
Integration Sample
Reflector
LCD
Color
Filter
PCB
Edge Lit
Backlight
Cover
In today´s unique marketplace where design engineers must meet the growing demand LCD and LED technologies
with reduced resources due to global economic conditions, it is key to stay up to date with the very latest being offered
in the way of custom technologies. Identifying a quality custom LCD or LED supplier can have a significant impact in
obtaining the best possible technology for your specific performance needs.
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Summary
• Benefits of LED Lighting
• Long life, Energy savings, Shock resistant
• Lighting Applications
• Ambient, Accent, Task and Decorative
• Identify Quality LED Technology
• Binning, CRI, Color Temperature, Viewing Angle,
Thermal management, Lumens
• Identify a Quality LED Supplier
• Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products
• Lumex Custom Capabilities
For more information on Lumex’s innovative products, as well as our custom integration capabilities, contact Newark
Electronics at 1-800-4-Newark or www.newark.com.

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