A Member of the A Member of the Date Title LED Lighting Design CONFIDENTIAL: All contents copyright of Illinois Tool Works, Inc. (ITW). The ITW Photonics Group, Lumex, Cal Sensors and Opto Diode logos are registered trademarks of ITW, Inc. Copyright © 2011, all rights reserved..˙ A Member of the LED Lighting Design Overview • Benefits of LED Lighting • Applications • Identifying the Quality LED Technology • Identifying a Quality LED Supplier • Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products • Lumex Custom Capabilities Content • 21 Pages Learning Time • 15 Minutes Welcome to the Lumex LED Lighting Design training module. This module looks at the advantages and considerations of designing general illumination products with LED technology. It also includes discussions of using LEDs to their best advantage based on a number of unique characteristics and the importance of matching the right LED solutions to the right supplier. A Member of the Benefits of LED Lighting ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENTAL Long life up to and beyond 20,000 hours. lifetime – LEDs offer greater color mixing. Compact size LEDs are more energy efficient. The energy consumed by one LED is the equivalent of 50 halogen bulbs. Combined with compact size, offers wider range of design options. Long life Shock resistant Instant on/off Coupled with longevity, LED bulbs = fewer lamps required to be disposed of. The world of LED lighting continues to make rapid advancements. These advancements offer a wide range of benefits to general illumination, from energy efficiency and design enhancement, to extended life and technical improvements such as compact size, shock resistance and more. The benefits of LEDs are literally transforming the process of lighting design. Not only are LEDs more cost effective in the long run, they use less energy, are more durable and effective and are the healthier choice for a greener tomorrow. A Member of the Long Lifetime LED Life – Compared with Conventional Light Sources 1,000 Hours 6,000 Hours 20,000 Hours One of the most significant assets of LEDs in lighting is life hours. LEDs life goes far beyond even the closest lighting technology, which is currently cold cathode florescent lamps (CCFL), up to and beyond 20,000 hours of continuous operation. In addition, LED lights do not fail catastrophically as they age unlike both incandescent and CCFL. 20,000 hours is the half life, which means that the LED light is still illuminated, but has dimmed by about half. A Member of the Energy Savings Total Hours per Month kWh Cost per Month (U.S. $) Cost per Year per Bulb (U.S. $) Cost per Year with 50 Bulbs (U.S. $) Savings per Year Watt Rating Hours on Per Day Lumex MR16 LED Bulb 7 8 240 1.12 0.1232 1.4784 73.92 599.68 Incandescent MR16 60 8 240 9.6 1.056 12.672 633.60 0.00 Note: Businesses tend to get a lower kWh rate, but use significantly more bulbs than residences. LEDs are among the most efficient lighting sources available. LEDs are different simply they use much less power, yet are still able to provide as much lighting as needed. LED lights are typically rated from 1 watt to 5 watts, which is in stark contrast from the levels of power typical for general illumination today. A 5 watt LED bulb is likely to give provide the same amount of brightness as a 35 watt halogen bulb, or a 60 watt filament bulb. Because LEDs provide just as much light, but utilize far less power, it’s inevitable that regardless of the model LED, you will be saving money on operating costs. A Member of the Going Green LEDs are a vastly superior solution to existing lighting technologies, which can lead to dramatic energy savings. Using LEDs in lighting has other, broader benefits. They reduce the amount of overall mercury being introduced into the waste stream. Coal burning power plant emissions contain mercury which is released once the coal is burned. By reducing the amount of energy consumed by lighting, LEDs help to reduce the mercury emissions. In addition, CCFL’s on average contain 4mg of mercury which could be released into the ecosystem if not properly disposed. Finally, a 7 watt MR16 LED lamp creates less than 25% of the CO2 emissions of an equivalent 40-watt incandescent lamp. A Member of the Applications The many benefits of LED lighting make them a natural choice for an ever-expanding range of lighting applications. Virtually every industry is now able to incorporate an LED-based solution for its design needs. Not to mention, recent federal mandates are now quickly contributing to the acceptance and adoption of LEDs for general lighting. A Member of the Identifying the Quality LED Technology 6 Factors to Consider when Selecting LED Technology Factor 1: Factor 2: Factor 3: Factor 4: Factor 5: Factor 6: Binning Color Rendering Index Color Temperatures Viewing Angles Thermal Management Lumens LEDs are the most widely varying type of lighting solution in the market today. However before even looking at which model LED to choose, there is a lot to consider. It’s not just about how much output an LED can produce. Simply choosing the LED with the most raw lumen output is not going to make the best light if you don’t consider a few additional fundamentals such as lens type, connectors or thermal management. With a wide selection of choices regarding color, brightness, power and viewing angles, it’s important to take a moment to consider your lighting needs, to make sure you choose the most suitable LED for your lighting needs. A Member of the Binning Sorting, also known as Binning, is a vital part of the LED selection process. The binning process can assist with providing consistent color and output, as well as optical alignment. LED chips are grown in a batch process known as wafers and can include thousands of LED chips on each wafer. Because there are some LED chips, in any single wafer, that are closer in performance to each other, they are lumped into a group called a ‘bin’. Each LED chip, within a wafer, has a unique set of characteristics such as: forward voltage, brightness (intensity), color. In other words, no 2 LED chips will be exactly the same. In LED lighting, binning is critical to ensuring that lighting is consistent and does not appear like the example above. A Member of the Color Rendering Index CRI = 90 CRI = 70 CRI = 50 Color rendering generally refers to how colors appear when illuminated by a light source. Most objects are not a single color, but a combination of many colors. Light sources that are deficient in certain colors may change the apparent color of an object. The Color Rendition Index or CRI is a 1-100 scale that measures a light source's ability to render colors the same way as direct sunlight. The higher the rating, the closer the light source is to replicating sunlight. In the case of LEDs, some of the best light sources have an average CRI of somewhere between 70-90. When reviewing your application, consider how important it is to have a high CRI. In the case of illuminating a commercial or residential cooler, the CRI may be extremely important to show the true color of perishable food. A Member of the Color Considerations Cool Neutral White 5000 ~ 7000 Kelvin Temp 4000 Kelvin Temp 2700 ~ 3500 Kelvin Temp Color has been one of the key challenges facing white LEDs as a general light source. LED color temperature is measured on the Kelvin scale. The lower the temperature, the more yellow-tinged the LED will be, or what is referred to as Warm White. The higher the Kelvin scale, the whiter, more bright the LED, which is referred to as Cool White. Yellow and red colors are considered warm. Blue and green colors are considered cool. The ideal color temperature depends on the usage. For instance, a cool white LED would be idea for a jewelry store showcase or hospital lighting, whereas warm white LEDs would be ideally used for illumination in homes, or hotel lobbies. Neutral White is considered best for offices areas, libraries or retail stores. A Member of the Viewing Angles TitanBrite™ SSL-LX100T123 QuasarBrite™ SML-H1505 QuasarBrite™ SML-LX0404SIUPGUSB The term viewing angle refers to the a calculation that 50% of the total number of lumens reported for an LED will be captured within the reported viewing angle. For example, LEDs with a 120˚ viewing angle have 50% of their total light output in the 120˚ beam angle. The balance of the light comes out as far as 180˚. When choosing an LED, it is important to know how it will be used and where it will be installed and whether the amount of light displayed should have a very narrow or broad beam. A Member of the Thermal Management Optimal heat dissipation is key to quality high power LED performance. Non-optimal heat dissipation can lead to: loss in efficacy, a decrease in life hours and color degradation. The crux of ensuring optimal heat dissipation is junction temperature management. The challenge is to keep a high-powered LED below the 125°C failure point. To keep the junction temperature as low as possible and well below the 125°C failure point, there are four key elements to consider: Ambient temperature, Substrate material as well as the drive current and packaging and assembly of the LED. A Member of the Removing the Heat Air Cooling Water Cooling There are both active and passive cooling techniques for achieving desired junction temperature. Passive techniques pertain largely to the basic composition of the high power LED technology whereas active cooling techniques require additional power. The four most commonly used passive cooling techniques are thermal paste, metal core PCBs (MCPCB), heat sinks and passive convection. Active cooling techniques require additional power input. Three of the most common active cooling techniques include fans, water cooling, and thermoelectric cooling. A quality supplier will provide customers with expert design support on a variety of active and passive cooling techniques designed to minimize junction temperature. A Member of the Look for the Lumens Common Light Sources Color Temperature & CRI Values Light Source Color Temp CRI Value Candle 1,700k 100 CRI Incandescent Bulb 2,700k 100 CRI Halogen Lamp 3,200k 95 CRI 5-6,000k 100 CRI Daylight Bulb 6,400k 80 CRI Lumex TitanBrite 3-Watt LED 3,000k 80-85 CRI Lumex TitanBrite 5-Watt LED 6,000k 70-80 CRI Natural Sunlight There are a number of different types of LEDs on the market, often with very different characteristics. LEDs differ from traditional light sources in that it can be difficult to tell the brightness of a particular bulb simply looking at the wattage. A effective LED will have a balance between lifetime and brightness. A more reliable way of determining the brightness is to compare the light output. This is measured in lumens. A higher lumen output means a brighter bulb always choose as high a lumen output as necessary. Although some LEDs may appear to be more powerful as they have a higher wattage, but superior LEDs will have a higher lumen output, often at a lower wattage, meaning they are more efficient. A Member of the Identifying a Quality LED Supplier 5 Things to Look for when Selecting LED Supplier 1: Complimentary Technology Integration & Design Support 2: Standard AND Custom Technologies 3: Focus on Application Needs 4: Focus on Innovation 5: Streamline Entire Production Process What are the top 5 things to look for when selecting an LED supplier: 1) Complimentary technology integration and design support. 2) standard and custom technologies. 3) focus on application needs. 4) Focus on innovation 5) Streamline entire production processes. A Member of the Complimentary Technology Integration & Design Support for Custom Lighting Solutions COST LEAD TIME • Tooling often waived for certain quantities • Down from 12-16 weeks only a few years ago • Total cost of ownership is often lower • Custom LEDs 2-4 weeks • Having the right part for the right application • Custom Light Panels 4-6 weeks PRODUCT RELIABILITY • < 50 ~ 100 PPM For much of the past 20 years, custom LED technologies were commonly associated with enhanced applicationspecific performance but also with higher costs, long lead times and reduced reliability. Over the past five yearstechnological advancements have completely redefined how custom technology performs on each of these fronts. The cost of tooling materials and often the included design engineering support from the supplier provides high return on investment and has come down dramatically in cost. Second, as custom tooling has been simplified and quality suppliers have developed expertise in the specific challenges of custom technology development, processes have been streamlined resulting in shorter lead times. Finally, quality suppliers have developed significant expertise in developing consistently high-quality custom LEDs and integrated lighting solutions. A good supplier can deliver products with less than 50 to 100 parts per million (PPM) failure rates. A Member of the Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products TitanBrite™ High Power LEDs QuantumBrite™ Edge Lit and Chips on Board Backlights InfoVue™ TFT, Extreme Temp, and Monochromatic Graphic, Character and Numeric LCDs MicronSensIR™ Emitters and Detectors QuasarBrite™ SMD and Thru-Hole LEDs LED Displays LED Arrays and Light Bars Infrared and UV LEDs TransBrite™ Light Pipes SunBrite™ General Illumination Download a copy of Lumex’s Full Product Capabilities Poster. Lumex offers a broad portfolio of standard products, ranging from general illumination to high power LEDs, light pipe, LCDs and backlights and our extensive line of surface-mount and through-hole LEDs. Lumex is dedicated to continuing to offer the latest innovation in our full product line. Recent releases include our new TitanBrite 2-Watt, 3Watt and 5-Watt high power LEDs, as well as our TitanBrite 3-Watt RGB LED. A Member of the Custom Technology – Case Study The Challenge Illuminate the cavity of an ice and water dispenser with: 1. higher intensity 2. targeted light distribution to the activation panels, water dispenser and ice dispenser 3. Cool white color 4. energy savings 5. Matched light intensity and color 6. easily field replaceable Additional case studies illustrating Lumex’s unique custom technology solutions are available at www.lumex.com. The Lumex Solution The Lumex Technical Design Team reviewed the options and quickly concluded that using the high power LED would create additional challenges including heat management, shorter life hours and uneven light distribution in the cavity. As an alternative, we proposed using 3 white 5mm LEDs in a small molded module with an integrated PCB and quick disconnect 2-pin connector at the end of a wire assembly. The LEDs would all be color and intensity matched so that every LED within the module and every module would have the same 2700° Kelvin cold color temperature. This solution would also allow light to be pointed from each of the three LEDs into the exact location in the cavity where light was needed, rather than relying on over-saturating the entire cavity with light. A Member of the Lumex Custom Capabilities Integration Sample Reflector LCD Color Filter PCB Edge Lit Backlight Cover In today´s unique marketplace where design engineers must meet the growing demand LCD and LED technologies with reduced resources due to global economic conditions, it is key to stay up to date with the very latest being offered in the way of custom technologies. Identifying a quality custom LCD or LED supplier can have a significant impact in obtaining the best possible technology for your specific performance needs. A Member of the Summary • Benefits of LED Lighting • Long life, Energy savings, Shock resistant • Lighting Applications • Ambient, Accent, Task and Decorative • Identify Quality LED Technology • Binning, CRI, Color Temperature, Viewing Angle, Thermal management, Lumens • Identify a Quality LED Supplier • Lumex Product Catalog – Standard Products • Lumex Custom Capabilities For more information on Lumex’s innovative products, as well as our custom integration capabilities, contact Newark Electronics at 1-800-4-Newark or www.newark.com.