Anaerobic Respiration
 Glycolysis
Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic respiration: O2 NOT required
Glucose: pyruvate and small amount of ATP
ATP production ends glycolysis
Pyruvate is converted into other molecules
Lactate Net
ATP =2
Citric acid cycle=
Krebs cycle
 Fermentation:
a cell has a short supply of
oxygen (a body is running at full speed
away from a lion ) will not use anaerobic
respiration but will start fermentation
Fermentation extends glycolysis with extra
reactions that replenish NAD+,
Keeps glycolysis running producing small
amounts of ATP.
Two Types of Fermentation
 Lactic
acid fermentation
happens in bacteria, fungi, and animal cells.
an anaerobic fermentation reaction
In activities that require high amount of glucose to
be consumed by our muscles (exercise),
 energy
is obtained from anaerobic metabolism of
pyruvate and the by-product is lactate
Two Types of Fermentation
Lactic acid fermentation
When we exercise, the amount of lactate produced exceeds the
rate at which the muscles can remove it
leads to an uncomfortable, burning sensation in the muscles,
especially those of the arms and legs, and is not responsible for
the muscle soreness experienced by the person the day after.
In fact, the burning sensation is just a warning sign that we are
doing something that is a bit too hot to handle for our muscles.
The terms "lactate" and "lactic acid" are often used
interchangeably, but there is a difference:
lactic acid is an acid, which means it can release a
hydrogen ion and bind with a positively charged sodium or
potassium ion to form an acid salt.
lactate production is part of the way your muscles get fuel to
keep working, and exercising at too high an intensity for too
long will lead to the buildup of lactic acid, which will make
your working muscles burn.
Two Types of Fermentation
 Alcoholic
similar to lactic acid fermentation
Instead of the pyruvate being reduced to lactate, it
is reduced to ethanol, and lets off two molecules of
CO2 along the way
Used by: bacteria and yeast (yeast are fungi, btw).
Humans "use" alcohol fermentation in another way,
by using it to make bread, beer and wine.
Anaerobic Respiration
 No
 Glycolysis extended
 Fermentation
 Only 2 ATP produced
Similarities and differences to anaerobic and aerobic
• ATP provides energy for biosynthesis reactions
in cells
• Biosynthesis reactions form larger, more
complex molecules from less-complex
• Ex: starch from glucose
• Biosynthesis helps organisms to grow and
maintain their structure
• Definition provided by definition bing.com
• biological production of chemical
substances: the synthesis of chemical
substances as the result of biological
Biosynthesis and Breakdown
 Metabolism:
all chem. activities &
changes that take place in the
All chem rxns in a cell are 2 types:
 Synthesis
(biosynthesis): build up larger more
complex molecules
 Breakdown/decomposition (decomp) rxns:
break down larger molecules into smaller
Examples of Biosynthesis and
 Biosynthesis:
Build proteins from amino acids, which then
build tissues, such as muscles and blood
from proteins
 Breakdown:
Cellular respiration, releases E & that E is
provided from food
Importance of Food
 Provides
 Organic Molecules for making sugar,
amino acids, other compounds (cmpds)
W/O Organ. Cmpnds cells could not repair
or create new cells
 Photosynthesis
provides food for
 How do heterotrophs get their food?
 Digestion:
breaking dwn larger molecules
into smaller, simpler molecules
Enzymes help break down of food
 Found
in mouth, stomach, small intestine
 Speed up reactions
Final digestion occrs in sm. Intestine
Sandwich process through
 Contains:
Carbs, proteins, fats
acids, fatty acids
 These
sugar, amino
organic molecules then pass thru
sm. Intest. Cell membrne to blood stream
 From blood stream go into cells
 Fats:
 Proteins:
Converted to
 3-C
molecule and
fatty acids- which
enter Krebs
 Amino acids
 Whether
a protein, carb, or fat, each
organic molecule must be synthesized
from the matter the organism takes in
 Then it must be broken down so that the
organisms can use the necessary organic
molecules and energy

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