presentation slides - Georgia State University

Report
Programming with Concurrency:
Threads, Actors and Coroutines
ZHEN LI
EILEEN KRAEMER
EDUPAR 2013
BOSTON, MA, USA
Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Motivation & Observations
 Motivation


Users depend on the effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability of
parallel and distributed computing that now permeates most
computing activities
CS Education research and materials for teaching concurrency,
particularly to undergraduates, are underdeveloped
 Observations



In existing courses on concurrency, a disconnect often occurs
between conceptual knowledge and practical skills
In the absence of hands-on practice, students do not retain the
conceptual knowledge
Practical skills of interest to students: programming with
concurrency constructs in Java, Scala and Python
Principle & Implementation
 Course Design Principle:

Provide repeated practice to support acquisition of integrated
conceptual knowledge (concurrency constructs) and practical skills
(programming languages)
 Student Demographics:


Little prior knowledge of concurrency topics
Some level of familiarity in 1 to 2 programming languages
 Implementation:


A scaffolding approach for the acquisition of a 2nd and 3rd
programming language
A hands-on, practice-centered learning environment
Course Design
Elements of Teaching
5
MODELS OF CONCURRENCY
APPROACHES TO CONCURRENCY
CLASSICAL PROBLEMS IN CONCURRENCY
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Models of Concurrency
6
 Shared memory model
 Single, unified memory image
 Synchronization: different computing processes communicate
through this shared memory
 Message passing model
 Private memory
 Synchronization: different computing processes communicate
through the exchange of messages
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Approaches to Concurrency
7
 Thread-based approach


Most operating systems (kernel level, user level, hybrid)
Java, C, C++, etc.
 Actor-based approach


Web framework (LiftWeb, SOAP); Chat & messaging (Facebook,
Twitter);
Scala, Erlang
 Coroutine-based approach


Network library (Gevent)
Haskell, Python
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Approaches to Concurrency
8
Approach Constructs
Java
java.lang.Object
threads
java.lang.Runnable
Runnable interface
java.lang.Thread
wait(), notify(), notifyAll()
Scala
scala.actors._
actors
Actor._
!, receive, react, mailbox related
function
Python
PEP 342: enhanced generator
coroutines function
yield, send, next, StopIteration
exception
General Design Procedure
discern shared (passive) vs.
thread (active) objects
apply monitor pattern
design protocols of message
types and behaviors
apply react pattern
discern shared (passive) objects
discern coroutine and progress
conditions
apply generator pattern
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Classical Problems in Concurrency
9
 Multi-tasking (race condition)
 Conditional synchronization
 Deadlock & fairness
 Multiple issues combined
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer
Science Department, University of Georgia
Classical Problems in Concurrency
10
 Multi-tasking (race condition)
 Ornamental
garden
 Sum and worker
 Conditional synchronization
 Deadlock & fairness
 Multiple issues combined
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer
Science Department, University of Georgia
Classical Problems in Concurrency
11
 Multi-tasking (race condition)
 Conditional synchronization
 Bank
account
 Bounded buffer
 Deadlock & fairness
 Multiple issues combined
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer
Science Department, University of Georgia
Classical Problems in Concurrency
12
 Multi-tasking (race condition)
 Conditional synchronization
 Deadlock & fairness
 Dining
philosopher
 Readers and writers
 Multiple issues combined
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer
Science Department, University of Georgia
Classical Problems in Concurrency
13
 Multi-tasking (race condition)
 Conditional synchronization
 Deadlock & fairness
 Multiple issues combined
 Party
matching
 Sleeping barber
 Book inventory
 Single lane bridge
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer
Science Department, University of Georgia
Content and
Course Implementation
Overview of Parallelism and Concurrency
15
 2 weeks
 Content


Multi-core architecture
Two models of concurrency
 Reading



Introduction to Parallel Computing<book>
Parallel Computer Architectures<book>
Multi-core Processors and Systems<book>
 Assignment


Lab: Observing multi-core architecture’s performance
Homework: Survey on contemporary supercomputers
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
UML and Concurrency
 1.5 Weeks
 Content
 UML state and sequence diagrams (multi-media tutorial)
 Mapping of UML diagram to C++ codes
 Assignment
 Lab: Modeling book inventory system as shared memory and
message passing systems using UML
Comprehension of Concurrency with Pseudocode
 4 weeks
 Content



Introduction to pseudocode system
Concurrency concepts (race conditions, etc.)
Implementation details with pseudocode
 Reading


Semaphore versus Mutex (online material)
MySQL bug reports (online material)
 Assignment


Homework: pseudocode completion of dining philosopher and
readers-writers problem
Lab: implement book inventory system with pseudocode
Pseudocode System (original)
18
Simple Statement
variable = expression
Simple statements are executed atomically.
Assignment is an example of a simple
statement
If Statement (Conditional)
IF condition THEN
statement(s)
ELSE IF condition THEN
statement(s)
ELSE
statement(s)
ENDIF
The calculation of condition is not
necessarily atomic if it involves function
call statements. However, the choice of
branch based on a calculated condition value
is executed atomically.
total = 0
name = “John Smith”
condition = True
height = 3.3
IF testScore >= 90 THEN
PRINTLN “A”
ELSE IF testScore >= 80 THEN
PRINTLM “B”
ELSE IF testScore >= 70 THEN
PRINTLN “C”
ELSE
PRINTLN “F”
ENDIF
testScore = 88
Output
B
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Pseudocode System (extended)
19
Parallel Execution Statements
PARA
statement(s)
ENDPARA
Statements within the PARA/ENDPARA block are executed
concurrently.
Atomic statements within PARA/ENDPARA are executed in any
order.
Statements defined in a function that is called within the
PARA/ENDPARA block are executed sequentially.
Statements defined in functions that are called within a
PARA/ENDPARA block are executed in any order of interleaving
with simple statements within the same PARA/ENDPARA block.
Statements defined in two functions that are called within
the same PARA/ENDPARA block are executed in any order of
interleaving while statements from any one of the functions
are executed in their order of definition.
PARA
PRINT “hello ”
PRINT “world ”
ENDPARA
Output
possibility 1: hello world
possibility 2: world hello
DEFINE print()
PRINT “hi”
PRINT “there”
ENDDEF
PARA
print()
ENDPARA
Output
hi there
DEFINE print()
PRINT “hi”
PRINT “there”
ENDDEF
PARA
print()
PRINT “world”
ENDPARA
Output
possibility 1: world hi there
possibility 2: hi world there
possibility 3: hi there world
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Pseudocode System (extended)
20
Shared Memory Concurrency
Exclusively Accessed Statement
EXC_ACC
statement(s)
END_EXC_ACC
Only appears within a function definition.
When one function call executes statements inside an
EXC_ACC/END_EXC_ACC block, other function calls that read
or modify the same variables that appear inside the
markers may not execute until the first function call
completes or executes a WAIT function.
Wait and Notify Functions
WAIT()
NOTIFY()
Only be called inside a EXC_ACC/END_EXC_ACC block.
Once a WAIT() function starts execution, another function
call that reads or modifies variables inside the
EXC_ACC/END_EXC_ACC block may execute.
Once a NOTIFY() function is executed, all WAIT()
functions finish their execution.
Both WAIT() and NOTIFY() functions are atomic.
x = 10
DEFINE changeX(diff)
EXC_ACC
x = x + diff
END_EXC_ACC
ENDDEF
PARA
changeX(1)
changeX(-2)
ENDPARA
PRINTLN x
Output
9
x = 10
DEFINE changeX(diff)
EXC_ACC
WHILE x + diff < 0 DO
WAIT()
ENDWHILE
x = x + diff
NOTIFY()
END_EXC_ACC
ENDDEF
PARA
changeX(-11)
changeX(1)
ENDPARA
PRINTLN x
Output
0
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Pseudocode System (extended)
21
Message Passing Concurrency
Message Variable
MESSAGE.message-name(value...)
A special message variable that carries a collection of values. The
message-name is used to distinguish message variables from one
another.
m1 = MESSAGE.h(“hello”)
m2 = MESSAGE.w(“world”)
Send Statement
Send(message variable).To(object)
Send a message specified by message variable to a receiver object.
A send statement is asynchronous, which means that the order in
which messages are received may differ from the order in which they
were sent.
m1 = MESSAGE.h(“hello”)
m2 = MESSAGE.w(“world”)
Send(m1).To(r1)
Send(m2).To(r1)
Receive Statement
ON_RECEIVING
message
statement(s)
message
statement(s)
...
Accept the next message and execute statement(s) according to the
type of the message.
CLASS Receiver
DEFINE receive
ON_RECEIVING
MESSAGE.h(var)
PRINT var
MESSAGE.w(var)
PRINTLN var
ENDDEF
ENDCLASS
m1 = MESSAGE.h(“hello”)
m2 = MESSAGE.w(“world”)
r1 = new Receiver()
r1.receive()
Send(m1).To(r1)
Send(m2).To(r1)
Output
possibility1: hello world
possibility2: world
hello
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Pseudocode System (sample)
22
CLASS Buffer
DEFINE initialize Buffer(capacityVal)
items = []
capacity = capacityVal
ENDDEF
DEFINE produce(itemVal)
EXC_ACC
WHILE length(items) > capacity DO
WAIT()
ENDWHILE
items[length(items)] = itemVal
NOTIFY()
END_EXC_ACC
ENDDEF
DEFINE consume()
EXC_ACC
WHILE length(items) < 1 DO
WAIT()
ENDWHILE
item = items[0]
del items[0]
NOTIFY()
END_EXC_ACC
return item
ENDDEF
ENDCLASS
CLASS Producer
DEFINE initialize Producer(bufferVal)
buffer = bufferVal
ENDDEF
DEFINE run()
WHILE True DO
buffer.produce(randNum(0,10))
ENDWHILE
ENDDEF
ENDCLASS
CLASS Consumer
DEFINE initialize Consumer(bufferVal)
buffer = bufferVal
ENDDEF
DEFINE run()
WHILE True DO
PRINTLN buffer.consume()
ENDWHILE
ENDDEF
ENDCLASS
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Midterm Exam
 1 week
 Content
 Comprehension of a concurrent system (single-lane bridge,
expressed using pseudocode
Midterm Exam Performance
Group
Shared Memory
(Mean)
Message Passing
(Mean)
Overall
(Mean)
S (9 students)
56.67 / 100 (1st)
81.72 / 100 (2nd)
138.39 / 200
D (7 students)
76.14 / 100 (2nd)
65.93 / 100 (1st)
142.07 / 200
All
65.19 / 100
74.81 / 100
Concurrent Program Comprehension
25
PARA
redCarA.run()
redCarB.run()
blueCarA.run()
END_PARA
Suppose redCarA has called the redEnter() method on line 9 but has not returned. Then redCarB invokes its run()
method and calls the redEnter() method but also has not returned.
Decide if each of the scenarios below (k-t) could happen immediately after the above. Circle YES if the sequence is
possible; otherwise, circle NO. Then please provide a brief explanation of your reasoning.
(m)redCarB returns from the redEnter() method, then calls the redExit() method on line 19 and blocks on the EXC_ACC
marker on line 20.
YES
NO
Explanation:
PARA
bridge.start()
redCarA.start()
redCarB.start()
blueCarA.start()
END_PARA
Suppose redCarA has sent the redEnter message but has not yet received any messages. Then redCarB invokes its
start() method, and sends the redEnter message but has not yet received any messages.
Decide if each of the scenarios below (k-t) could happen immediately after the above. Circle YES if the sequence
is possible; otherwise, circle NO. Then please provide a brief explanation of your reasoning.
(m)redCarB receives a succeedEnter message, then sends a redExit message and receives
MESSAGE.succeedExit(2).
YES
NO
Explanation:
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
General Misconception Hierarchy
26
Description Level
D1
Misconceptions of the system and/or problem descriptions
Terminology Level
Misinterpretation of a term that describes thread or process
T1
behavior
Concurrency Level
C1
Misconceptions about thread or process behaviors
Implementation Level
I1
Misconceptions about synchronous mechanisms
I2
Misconceptions about asynchronous mechanisms
Uncertainty Level
Confusion about space of executions; include impossible
U1 execution sequences or fail to consider possible execution
sequences
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Misconceptions about Shared Memory
27
Shared Memory
[D1]S1: Conflate order of cars with their thread’s name (#students: 3)
[T1]S2: Misinterpret “race condition” as “different interleaving” (#students: 1)
[T1]S3: Misinterpretation on terminology “block on” (#students: 2)
[C1]S4: Conflate order of method return with order of entering/exiting bridge
(#students: 4)
[C1]S5: Conflate locking with conditional waiting (#students: 9)
[I1]S6: Misinterpretation of WAIT() function’s effect and conflate wait with
continuous execution of the enclosing while loop (#students: 1)
[I1]S7: Conflate order of method invocation/return with get/release lock
(#students: 10)
[U]S8: Uncertainty (#students: 2)
Increased size of state spaced causes illogical (self-contradictory)
reasoning or occurrence of misconceptions not seen in simpler scenarios
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Misconceptions about Message Passing
28
Message Passing
[D1]M1: Question setting (#students: 6)
[T1]M2: Misinterpret “race condition” as “different order of messages” (#students: 1)
[C1]M3: Send semantics : assume ability to send depends on condition at receiver or interpret
send as a synchronous method call (#students: 7)
[C1]M4: Receive semantics: assume receipt of acknowledgement message is synchronous with
the occurrence of the event ( (bridge entered or exited) (#students: 7)
[I2]M5: Conflate message sending order with receiving order (#students: 6)
Four scenarios:
1)
different senders, same receiver (covered by test problem)
2)
different senders, different receivers
3)
same sender, different receivers (covered by test problem)
4)
same sender, same receiver
[U1]M6: Uncertainty (#students: 7)
Increased size of state spaced causes illogical (self-contradictory) reasoning or
occurrence of misconceptions not seen in simpler scenarios
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Misconceptions: the “fall back” phenomenon
29
 Extensive training  rare misconceptions on
terminology level
 Large number of misconceptions on description level? 
fall back from uncertainty
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Implementation of Concurrency
 8 weeks
 Content (flipped classroom)


Practice Java, Scala and Python without concurrency constructs
Implement concurrency with threads, actors and coroutines
 Reading



Java API and concurrency tutorial
Scala API and actors tutorial
Python API, Google’s python class, and coroutine tutorial
 Assignment

Lab: implement party-matching and sleeping barber with threads,
actors and coroutines
Final Exam
 0.5 week
 Content
 Implementation of concurrency (single-lane bridge)
 Choose either threads, actors or coroutines approach to finish
Related Curriculum Topics Covered
32
Single
instruction
Multiple
instruction
Single data
SISD
MISD
Multiple data
SIMD
MIMD
 Flynn’s Taxonomy
 Why and what is
parallel/distributed computing
 Concurrency
 Non-determinism
 Concurrency defects

 Shared memory







Task/thread spawning
Language extensions
Tasks and threads
Synchronization
Critical regions
Producer-consumer
Monitors

Deadlocks
Data Races
 Distributed Memory



Message passing
Functional/logic languages
Work stealing
 Tools to detect concurrency
defects
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Survey Data
 Surveys on effort and preferences were collected with
each lab and homework assignments
 Students consistently reported difficulties with shared
memory systems


In homeworks 2 (shared memory) and 3 (message passing), students
were asked to write pseudocode for the bounded-buffer and diningphilosopher problems discussed in class. In a survey conducted after
homework 3, only 1 student indicated that message-passing is more
difficult, and 10 indicated that shared memory is more difficult
In lab 2 (shared memory) and lab 3 (message passing) students were
asked to design a book inventory system. In the post-lab survey, 8 of
11 students who responded indicated that shared memory is more
difficult, 1 indicated that message passing is more difficult, and 2
students found the assignments equally difficult.
Survey Data
34
 Midterm exam on comprehending concurrency
 11 of the 15 students who responded indicated that questions in
the shared memory section were harder to answer than those
in the message passing section.
 10 of the 15 chose the message passing section as final graded
part. Of the 5 students who chose the shared memory section,
4 took the shared memory portion in the 2nd session.
 Of these 15 students, 13 chose correctly, in that they selected
the section in which they actually scored higher. The 2
students who chose incorrectly chose the shared memory
section but actually scored slightly higher on the messagepassing section.
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Conclusions
 This class is challenging, especially to undergraduate
students who have limited knowledge of concurrency and
are inexperienced in programming.

Some students report time pressure on completing homework and
lab projects. From the feedback of students who withdrew from the
course, 2 of 3 expressed unmanageable course workload as their
major reason for dropping
 The pseudocode system is useful for students to
comprehend and reason about concurrent systems, but it
requires further refinements on wording and validation
 A standard glossary of well-defined terminology is
essential.
 Shared memory is harder for students to understand,
design, write pseudocode for, and reason about.
Thanks!
QUESTIONS?
Monitor Pattern
37
Data Object Class
Function
lock
while condition is false
wait
execution
unlock
end function
end class
Active Object Class
Run function
invoking data object class’s
functions
end run function
end class
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
38
Monitor
Pattern
class Buffer<T> {
List<T> buf;
int capacity, size;
Buffer(int capacity) {
this.capacity = capacity;
buf = new ArrayList<T>();
size = 0;
}
Bounded Buffer
Buffer.java
void synchronized produce(T item) {
while (size >= capacity) wait();
buf.add(item);
size++;
}
T synchronized consume() {
while (size <= 0) wait();
size--;
return buf.remove(0);
}
}
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
39
class Producer<T> {
Buffer<T> buffer;
Monitor
Pattern
Producer(Buffer buffer) {
this.buffer = buffer;
}
Bounded Buffer
public void run() {
buffer.produce((T)10);
}
Producer.java
Consumer.java
}
class Consumer<T> {
Buffer<T> buffer;
Consumer(Buffer buffer) {
this.buffer = buffer;
}
public void run() {
T item = buffer.consume();
}
}
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
React Pattern
40
Data object class
Receive message
while condition is false
delay processing
processing
End receive message
End class
Active object class
Run function
send messages
End run function
End class
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
41
class Buf[T](capacity:Int) extends Actor {
var buf:List[T] = List()
React Pattern
Bounded Buffer
Buffer class
def prod(m:T) {
if (buf.size >= capacity) {
self ! produce(m)
} else {
buf = buf.:+(m)
}
}
def cons(consumer:Actor) {
if (buf.isEmpty) {
self ! consume(consumer)
} else {
val m = buf.head
buf = buf.tail
consumer ! cargo(m)
}
}
def act() {
loop {
react {
case produce(m:String, =>
prod(m)
case consume(consumer:Actor) =>
cons(consumer)
}
}
}
}
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
42
React Pattern
class Producer[T](buffer:Actor) extends Actor {
def prod() {
buffer ! produce((T)10)
}
def act() {
prod()
}
Bounded Buffer
}
Producer class
Consumer class
class Consumer[T](buffer:Actor) extends Actor {
def cons() {
buffer ! consume(self);
}
def act() {
cons()
loop {
react {
case cargo(m:T) =>
m
}
}
}
}
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
Generator Pattern
43
Data object class
Function
If condition is false
return false
Else
processing
return true
End if
End function
End class
Active object class
Run function
while invoking data object class’s
function returns false
yield
yield
End run function
End class
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
44
Generator
Pattern
Bounded Buffer
Buffer class
class buf:
def __init__(self, capacity):
self.capacity = capacity
self.items = []
def produce(self, item):
if len(self.items) >= capacity:
return false
self.items.append(item)
return true
def consume(self):
if len(self.items) <= 0:
return false
return self.items[0]
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia
45
Generator
Pattern
Bounded Buffer
Producer generator
Consumer generator
def producer(buf):
while True:
while not buf.produce(10):
yield
yield
def consumer(buf):
while True:
while not buf.consume():
yield
yield
Doctoral Prospectus by Zhen Li, Computer Science Department, University of Georgia

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