Ocean Topic Lecture We are Going to Need a Bigger Boat Part I THE OCEAN – How Does it Work? Why is it important? It is essential to the way that we understand whether life can be supported Marine Biologist tell us that 200k types of named species exist in the ocean It is estimated that 700k to 2.2 million unknown species that exist in the world Ocean contains 99% of the living space on the planet The Great Unknown This is a fear that people play off of, particularly within the context of media or movies Jaws plays off of this when we think about the surface of the ocean; The Great Unknown Some people think about that which we cannot see as almost a supernatural force The abyss plays off of this idea - Deep water exploration Part II THE TOPIC The Resolution Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its non-military exploration and/or development of the Earth's oceans. “The United States federal government should …” Will be covered in a discussion on framework “…substantially increase…” Two basic ways that you can think about this Increase = make new Increase = modify existing “…its…” Its = ownership Means that in order for an affirmative to be topical, they must increase the development of the ocean that is owned or possessed by the USFG “… non-military …” Cannot be the military or for military purposes “…exploration and/or development…” The action of the resolution The same phrase that was used in a previous resolution (2011-2012) Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase its exploration and/or development of space beyond the Earth’s mesosphere. “…exploration…” Defined by the NOAA NOAA’s Office of Ocean Exploration and Research Program explores the unknown ocean, using and developing advanced technology for discoveries including new undersea habitats, communities, species, phenomena and greater understanding of ecosystems “…exploration…” “…exploration…” “… and/or …” Kind of a duh It means you can do both or just one “…development…” It seems like it could be almost anything… Office of Management and Budget 2010 – Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States Applied research is defined as systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine means by which a recognized and specific need may met. Development is defined as systematic application of knowledge or understanding, directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, and systems or methods, including design, development, and improvement of prototypes and new processes to meet specific requirements. “… development …” The most concise interpretation of ‘development’ is ‘use’ or ‘exploitation’ According to the Japanese Institute of Navigation “Professor Kiyomitsu Fujii of the University of Tokyo defines ocean development in his book as using oceans for mankind, while preserving the beauty of nature.” Means that it can be broken down in three basic categories. It could mean the utilization / exploitation of: Ocean resources Ocean spaces Ocean energy “… of …” Functions as a limit on the other words as well Beginning of prepositional phrase Contained within the ocean A note on its and of These two words are related to one another Its means that that, in order to be topical, it must be part of the water that is controlled by the federal government formal authority was established by the UN Law of the Sea in 1982. President Reagan rejected the treaty itself but agreed with the EEZ part – so he declared it by executive order in 1983. Means that 3 miles off the coasts arent topical – controlled by the states “… the Earth’s oceans.” Best definitions just includes the big 4 Atlantic Pacific Arctic Indian Excludes coasts Includes gulfs QUESTIONS?