Rosids: Fabids
Spring 2012
Fig. 8.1
Rosids – Major Points
Comprise about 25% of all angiosperms
Includes two main clades: fabids and malvids
Main support for monophyly from molecular data
No clear morphological synapomorphies, but tendencies to have
perianths with unfused parts and a stamen merosity > calyx or
corolla, although there are many exceptions
Extreme variation in habit (trees, shrubs, herbs, vines, etc.) as well
as extensive proliferation of floral syndromes, including wind,
insect, bird, and bat pollination
Transition from apocarpy to syncarpy as seen before; fusion and
embellishment of floral parts
Fig. 8.30
Core Eudicots: The Rosids
Order Malpighiales
Order Fabales
Order Rosales
Order Cucurbitales
Order Fagales
Order Myrtales
Order Brassicales
Order Malvales
Order Sapindales
Core Eudicots: The Rosids - Fabids
Order Malpighiales
Euphorbiaceae* – Spurges
Salicaceae* – Willows and poplars
Violaceae – Violets
Order Fabales
Fabaceae* – Beans
Order Rosales
Rosaceae* – Roses
Moraceae – Figs, mulberries
Ulmaceae – Elms
Order Cucurbitales
Curcurbitaceae* – Cucumbers, squashes
Begoniaceae – Begonias
Order Fagales
Betulaceae – Birches
Fagaceae – Oaks, beeches, chestnuts
Juglandaceae – Walnuts, hickories
*Family required for recognition
Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae
(The Spurge Family)
Widespread, but most diverse in tropical regions
Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines, sometimes
succulent; leaves usually alternate
Diversity: ca. 6,300 species in 218-245 genera
Flowers: Unisexual; sepals 2-6; petals 0-5; carpels
usually 3, ovule 1 per locule; styles usually 3 and
sometimes divided; inflorescences often highly
modified; fruit a schizocarp, seeds usually arillate
Significant features: Often with latex/laticifers
Special uses: rubber (Hevea), cassava/manioc
(Manihot), poinsettia (Euphorbia), ornamentals
Required taxa: Euphorbia
Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia
• Ca. 2,400 species
• White latex (usually)
• One female and few to many male
flowers aggregated into a cyathium
(one type of false flower or
• Cyathium subtended by modified
leaves (cyathophylls)
Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia cyathium
From the Euphorbia
PBI website
Euphorbiaceae: Euphorbia
Digital Flowers
•Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis)
castor bean ~ poisonous seeds
•Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)
•Tapioca, Cassava (Manihot)
Manihot esculenta
cassava, tapioca
•Tung oil (Aleurites)
Aleurites fordii
tung-oil tree
Malpighiales: Salicaceae
(The Willow or Poplar Family)
Widespread, from tropical to north temperate and
boreal regions
Trees or shrubs
Diversity: 1,200 species in 54-55 genera
Flowers: bisexual or unisexual; sepals 3-8; petals 38; stamens 2-∞; carpels 2-4, connate, in superior
ovary; fruit variable
Significant features: leaves simple, often with
salicoid teeth; salicin in most; includes what was
formerly called the “Flacourtiaceae”
Special uses: lumber, shade trees, ornamentals
Required taxa: Populus, Salix
Salicaceae: Salix
-bud scale single
-catkins usually erect
or ascending
-flowers unisexual
-each flower with 1-4
basal nectar glands
-stamens 1-12
-mainly insect pollination
Salicaceae: Populus
-bud scales several,
-catkins arching or
-flowers unisexual
-each flower with a basal
cup-like disk
-stamens 8-numerous
Malpighiales: Violaceae
(The Violet Family)
• Widespread, but predominantly herbs of
temperate regions
• Herbs, shrubs, or trees
• Diversity: 700-800 species in 23-24 genera
• Flowers: Sepals 5; petals 5; 5 connivent
stamens; carpels usually 3, connate, superior
ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule
Significant features: Zygomorphy, nectar spurs;
floral cleistogamy
Special uses: Violets grown primarily as
Family not required
Violaceae: connivent stamens
Violaceae: Viola
-mostly herbs, some shrubs
-flowers zygomorphic
-lower petal spurred
-spring flowers open-pollinated,
summer flowers remaining
closed (cleistogamous)
Fabales: Fabaceae
(The Legume Family)
Nearly cosmopolitan
Herbs, vines, trees, shrubs with usually alternate, stipulate, pinnately to
palmately compound leaves (sometimes unifoliolate or simple)
Diversity: 19,500 species, 720-730 genera – THIRD LARGEST FAMILY of
Flowers: a short, cup-like hypanthium present; sepals & petals usually 5,
free or connate; petals all alike or the uppermost 1 differentiated (banner),
the lower 2 forming a keel or flaring apart; stamens 5 or 10-many, if
connate then monadelphous or diadelphous; carpel 1, on a short stalk
(gynophore); fruit is a legume (Duh!) but sometimes modified
Significant features: High nitrogen metabolism w/ unusual amino acids,
often with root nodules with N-fixing bacteria; leaf and leaflet pulvinuses
well developed; endosperm often lacking; wide range of floral diversity; 3
subfamilies but 1 is not monophyletic
Special uses: Many!! Beans, peas, peanuts, soybean, clover,
ornamentals (Mimosa, Bauhinia); lumber, dyes, resins
Required taxa: Glycine, Trifolium, Mimosa, Cercis, Gleditsia and the
three subfamilies
Fabaceae vegetative characters
root nodules
compound leaves
Fabaceae floral characters
Perigynous flower,
short hypanthium
Diadelphous stamens:
Marginal (parietal) placentation
Fabaceae fruit and seed characters
Leaves usually
twice pinnately
Leaves usually
pinnately or twice
pinnately compound
Leaves pinnately
compound to
Fls actinomorphic,
petals valvate,
distinct or basally
Fls + weakly zygomorphic,
upper petal usually
innermost; petals distinct
Fls zygomorphic,
upper petal (banner)
outermost; well
defined wings and keel
Stamens 10-many,
distinct or basally
Stamens 5 or 10, distinct
Stamens 10,
monadelphous or
Fabaceae – Subfamily Mimosoideae
Albizia julibrissin
Acacia sp.
Fabaceae: Mimosoideae
in heads
Albizia julibrissin
mimosa, silktree
not fused
Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Mimosa
-woody or herbaceous
-often armed (with prickles)
-leafstalk without glands
-flowers in heads or rarely
racemes or spikes
-stamens 10 or fewer
Fabaceae – Subfamily
Fabaceae: “Caesalpinioideae”
Stamens not
-10 or fewer
Senna obtusifolia
Fabaceae: “Caesalpinioideae”: Cercis
-leaves simple,
palmately veined
-flowers clustered,
appearing before leaves
-corolla rose to
Cercis canadensis - redbud
Fabaceae: “Caesalpinioideae”:
-armed (with thorns)
-leaves 1- or 2-pinnate
-flowers small, unisexual or
-staminate inflorescences
catkin-like, pendent
-fertile inflorescences with
bisexual or carpellate flowers
Honey locust
Fabaceae – Subfamily Faboideae
Fabaceae: Faboideae
Petals unequal:
bacterial root nodule
showy rattlebox
Fabaceae: Faboideae
Petals unequal:
Crotalaria spectabilis
showy rattlebox
Fabaceae: Faboideae
Digital Flowers
Fabaceae: Faboideae: Glycine
-leaves pinnately 3-foliolate
-inflorescence a raceme
-stamens diadelphous
-seeds few per pod
Fabaceae: Faboideae: Trifolium
-leaves palmately (or
pinnately) foliolate with
usually 3 leaflets
-inflorescences racemose
but often appearing
-stamens diadelphous
-fruits enclosed by the
persistent corolla
-seeds 1-6 per pod
Rosales: Rosaceae
(The Rose Family)
Cosmopolitan, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere
Herbs, shrubs or trees (75% woody plants)
Diversity: 2,500-3,000 species in 85-90 genera
Flowers: Showy, actinomorphic, hypanthium present;
sepals 5; petals 5; stamens usually numerous; carpels
1 to many, apocarpous or syncarpous; ovary superior
or inferior; fruit can be a follicle, achene, pome, drupe,
or associated with expanded receptacle
Significant features: Wide range of fruit evolution within
family; leaves alternate, stipules present
Special uses: Fruits (apples, pears, berries),
ornamental herbs, trees, and shrubs; lumber,
Required taxa: Rubus, Prunus
Rosaceae: Rosa
-shrubs, often prickly
-leaves pinnately compound
-ovary superior
-hypanthium + globose and
fleshy, contracted at
the mouth
-carpels numerous
-fruit an achene
Rosaceae: Rubus*
-herbaceous to shrubby,
usually with prickles
-leaves often compound
with 3 to 7 leaflets
-carpels usually numerous,
borne on an elongate
-fruit a drupelet, forming an
aggregate fruit (blackberries
and raspberries)
*required for recognition
Rosaceae: Prunus*
-trees or shrubs
-bark with prominent
horizontal lenticels
-ovary superior
-carpel solitary
-fruit a drupe,
endocarp stony
*required for recognition
Rosaceae: Malus
-trees with simple leaves
-ovary inferior, with
5 carpels
-mature carpels papery
or softly leathery
-fruit a pome, lacks stone cells
Rosales: Moraceae
(The Fig Family)
Widespread, from tropical to temperate regions
Trees, shrubs, or vines (sometimes herbs)
Diversity: 1,500 species in 53 genera
Flowers: Unisexual, inconspicuous; tepals 0-4 or 5
(-8); carpels usually 2, connate, superior ovary;
inflorescences cymose, highly modified, compact,
receptacle expanded; fruit is a drupe, often in a
multiple fruit structure (syconium).
Significant features: laticifers/latex throughout the
Special uses: figs (Ficus), mulberries (Morus),
breadfruit (Artocarpus), ornamentals, e.g. osage
orange (Maclura)
Family not required
Ficus carica – Cultivated Fig
Morus rubra - Mulberry
Maclura pomifera
Osage orange
Moraceae: Ficus
-shrubs or trees
-connate stipules enclosing
the terminal buds
-leaves with entire margins
-flowers minute, borne
inside the syconium
Moraceae – The Fig and The Fig Wasp
Rosales: Ulmaceae
(The Elm Family)
Widely distributed; maximal diversity in temperate
regions of N. Hemisphere
Trees with alternate, 2-ranked leaves
Diversity: 35 species in 6 genera
Flowers: Small, inconspicuous; tepals 4-9; stamens
4-9; carpels 2, connate, superior ovary; fruit a
samara or nutlet, seeds flat
Significant features: Leaves simple with pinnate
venation, margins simply or doubly serrate, blade
base asymmetrical; endosperm of a single layer
Special uses: Elms provide lumber; some trees
used as ornamentals
Family not required
Ulmaceae: Ulmus
Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae
(The Cucumber or Squash Family)
Widespread in the tropics and subtropics, a few in temperate
Herbaceous or soft woody vines with scabrous stems and
palmately veined/lobed leaves and usually with tendrils
Diversity: 900 species in 118-122 genera
Flowers: hypanthium present; sepals & petals 5, usually
connate; stamens 3-5; carpels usually 3; ovary half-inferior or
inferior; fruit usually a berry (with hardened rind a pepo);
seeds flattened, the seed coat with several layers
Significant features: wide range of floral diversity, “toothed”
leaves lacking stipules; female flowers epiperigynous
Special uses: cucumbers (Cucumis), pumpkins, gourds, and
squashes (Cucurbita), watermelons (Citrullus) etc. are eaten
for fruits and seeds; Luffa, some ornamentals
Required taxa: family only
Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbita
-trailing herbs
-leaves large, cordateangled or lobed
-flowers large, solitary in axils
-corolla campanulate, deeply
-ovaries and fruits smooth or hairy,
not prickly
-fruits large, with a firm rind
-gourds, squashes, pumpkin
Cucurbitales: Begoniaceae
(The Begonia Family)
Widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics
Herbs or soft woody shrubs
Diversity: ca. 1,400 species in 2 genera (all but one
species in Begonia)
Flowers: Unisexual; tepals petaloid, 2-10 but usually
4 in 2 whorls (staminate) and 5 in 1 whorl (pistillate);
carpels usually 3, connate; inferior ovary; fruit a
loculicidal capsule, usually winged
Significant features: Soft herbs, typically of shaded
habitats; stigmas elongated, twisted, yellow,
Special uses: primarily ornamentals
Family not required
Begoniaceae: Begonia
Carpellate Flowers Staminate Flowers
-winged ovaries
Fagales: Fagaceae
(The Oak and Beech Family)
Widespread, in tropical to temperate regions of the
Northern Hemisphere
Trees and shrubs
Diversity: 670-970 species in 7 genera
Flowers: Unisexual (monoecious); tepals usually 6
and reduced, inconspicuous; stamens 4-many;
carpels 3 (-12), connate, inferior ovary; fruit a nut,
associated with a spiny or scaly cupule
Significant features: Male inflorescences in
dangling catkins; female inflorescences in sessile
Special uses: edible nuts (chestnuts), lumber,
tannin, cork; ornamental trees
Family not required
Fagaceae: Quercus
Bark pale to dark but scaly or furrowed
Buds clustered at twig tips, ovate
Leaves lobed or unlobed
Male flowers in drooping catkins
Cupule saucer-like or cup-shaped
Nut circular in cross-section
Fagaceae: Fagus
• Bark light gray, smooth
• Buds solitary at twig tips, slender and
• Leaves unlobed, strongly straight-veined
• Male flowers in a rounded head
• Cupule with 4 valves
• Nut compressed or triangular
Fagales: Betulaceae
(The Birch Family)
Widespread, in temperate to boreal regions, primarily
of the northern hemisphere
Trees or shrubs; leaves doubly serrate
Diversity: 140 species in 6 genera
Flowers: Unisexual (monoecious); tepals (0-) 1-4 (-6),
highly reduced; stamens 1-4; carpels 2, connate,
inferior ovary; fruit an achene, nut or 2-winged samara
Significant features: Flowers in erect (female) or
pendant (male) catkins (aments); staminate and
carpellate flowers in separate inflorescences
Special uses: hazel nuts edible; lumber, shade trees,
Family not required
Betulaceae: Betula
• Outer bark often separating in thin sheets
• Carpellate and staminate flowers both in
bracteate catkins
• Carpellate catkins ovoid to cylindrical,
with 2-3 flowers per bract and the bracts
papery (bracteate dichasia)
• Staminate flowers 3 per bract; stamens 2,
Fagales: Juglandaceae
(The Walnut and Hickory Family)
Widespread from tropical to temperate regions
Aromatic trees; leaves pinnately compound or
trifoliolate, usually alternate and spiral
Diversity: 59 species in 8 genera
Flowers: Unisexual (monoecious or dioecious); tepals
0-4, inconspicuous; stamens 3-many; carpels usually
2, connate, ovary inferior; fruit a nut or nutlet
Significant features: Fruit often associated with bracts
or bracteoles that form an outer “husk”
Special uses: fruits of hickories (Carya) and walnuts
(Juglans) are eaten; walnut and hickory are valued for
their lumber; some ornamentals
Family not required
Juglandaceae: Juglans
• Twigs with chambered pith
• Leaflets all about the same or the median
ones largest
• Staminate catkins sessile, solitary
• Nut with an indehiscent, usually rough or
furrowed husk
Juglandaceae: Carya
• Twigs with solid pith
• Apical leaflets largest
• Staminate catkins sessile or pedunculate,
in clusters
• Nut with a dehiscent or partially dehiscent,
often smooth husk

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