Cross-cutting Concepts and Scientific & Engineering Practices in

Report
Cross-cutting Concepts and
Scientific & Engineering Practices in
Oregon Classrooms
Bruce Schafer
Phone: 503-725-2915
Email: [email protected]
February 2014
Engineering Design in Oregon Science Classrooms
EDOSC
Middle School Science
Retired elementary teacher
Elementary
HS/Engineering
Science
Physics
Elementary Teacher
Elementary
Principal
Middle School Science
Middle School Science
Physics, Earth Science
Science
Mountain View Middle School
Central Elementary school
McMinnville High School Engineering &
Ashland Middle School
Southridge High School
Colton Elementary School
Yoshikai Elementary
John McLoughlin Elementary School
Leslie Middle School
Marshfield Middle/High
Gresham High School
North Clackamas SD
Major Milestones
• Tested with ES, MS, & HS Teachers in February 2013
• Train-the-Facilitator Workshop in June 2013 for 8 School Districts
Computational Thinking
Andy Byerley
Gail Gerdemann
Leslie Graham
Owen Griffiths
Kristi Healy
Bradford Hill
Richard Hoffman
Lesley Johnson
Ginger Redlinger
Michael Rockow
Lynda Sanders
Stephen Scannell
Meagan Sternberg
June 2013
Original Purpose: Help Oregon Teachers use engineering design to teach
science
Advisory & Review Panel
2
EDOSC Overview
• Sample Lessons
•
•
•
•
•
Lesson Plans
Readings
Vocabulary
Exploration Activity
Design Activity
Computational Thinking
• Elementary School
• Middle School
• High School
June 2013
• Supports current Oregon Science Standards
• Uses most of the Engineering Practices embodied in NGSS
• Teacher’s Guides
• Workshops
• For trainer/facilitators – 4 days – 1 to 3 people per grantee
• For teachers – 2 ½ days – grade-band specific
• http://opas.ous.edu/EDOSC/Materials.php
3
Earth Science
Physical Science
Elementary
School
Joanie Appleseed
Bricks for Pigs
Toad’s Car
Middle School
Franken Plants
Bioswales
Ultimate Speed
Challenge
High School
Biofuel from Algae Calorimeter
(Chemistry)
Littlefoot’s Ride
Computational Thinking
Life Science
June 2013
EDOSC Lessons
4
Computational Thinking
June 2013
Questions?
5
Computational Thinking
• Translating cross-cutting concepts into cognitive
skills
• Using scientific and engineering practices to
enhance learning
• Lessons
• Leverage and improve EDOSC lessons
• Creating new lessons
June 2013
Planning for NGSS
• Lesson clearinghouse
• Issues: Timing, budget
6
Intervention Model
Providing Affective & Conative
Learning Environments
Using High-impact Curricular and
Teaching Methods
Prepare
(Reduce Stress,
Enhance Focus)
Lessons that build cognitive skills while
0
optimizing cognitive load
Motivate
Units organized as small projects featuring
1
models that build skills associated with
4
scientific and engineering practices
Engage
Classroom discourse: Teacher-facilitated
3
transitioning to student-led
Enable
Formative Feedback used to guide
student learning
0. Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J., & Paas, F. G. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational
Psychology Review, 10(3), 251–296.
1. Ref. Hestenes; Halloun; Sibley; Gotzer and Perkins
2. Tied to CCSS English Language Arts.
3. Ref. Kuhn, et al; Aufschnaiter, et al; Also Michaels et al. (2008) re: Accountable Talk
4. Tied to NGSS practices: pedagogically-effective progressions based on subsets of professional practices.
2
High Impact Classrooms
Formative
Feedback
Skill Building
Units with
Optimized
Cognitive
Load
Teacher-Led,
StudentFocused
Classroom
Discourse
Cognitive Skills connecting to NGSS
Crosscutting Concepts
Concrete Skills: Objects, Characteristics
and Quantity
Basic abstraction skills: Patterns,
Concepts, Scale, Proportion
Advanced abstraction skills:
Cause and Effect
Structure and Function
Stability and Change
Flows, Cycles, Conservation
Procedures, Algorithms
Systems, Models
Meta skills: Metacognitive, Meta
strategic, and Critical Thinking skills
NGSS Crosscutting
Concepts
Cognitive Skills connecting to NGSS
Crosscutting Concepts
1. Patterns
Concrete Skills: Objects, Characteristics
and Quantity
2. Cause and effect:
Mechanism and
explanation
Basic abstraction skills: Patterns,
Concepts, Scale, Proportion
3. Scale, proportion, and
quantity
4. Systems and system
models
5. Energy and matter:
Flows, cycles, and
conservation.
6. Structure and function
7. Stability and change
Advanced abstraction skills:
Cause and Effect
Structure and Function
Stability and Change
Flows, Cycles, Conservation
Procedures, Algorithms
Systems, Models
Meta skills: Metacognitive, Meta
strategic, and Critical Thinking skills
NGSS Scientific & Engineering Practices
Nature of science and engineering
1. Asking questions (for science) and
defining problems (for engineering)
Science focuses on questions about the natural
world.
Engineering focuses on practical problems.
2. Developing and using models
Science is about models.
Engineering exploit models.
3. Planning and carrying out investigations
Science is about research.
Engineering as iterative improvement.
4. Analyzing and interpreting data
Science is analytical.
Engineering is about data.
5. Using mathematics and computational
thinking
Mathematics is the language of science and
engineering.
Computational thinking allows scientists &
engineers to exploit computers.
6. Constructing explanations (for science)
and designing solutions (for engineering)
Science is about explanations.
Engineering is about solutions.
7. Engaging in argument from evidence
Science is arguments and argumentation.
8. Obtaining, evaluating, and
communicating information
Science as assessing available information and
relating it to claims.
Engineering as using information to evaluation
methods and solutions.
1. Asking questions (for science) and
defining problems (for engineering)
Examples of Learning Skills*
Grades K-2
High School
Science
Ask questions based on
observations to find more
information about the
natural world.
Ask questions that arise from careful
observation of phenomena, or
unexpected results to clarify and/or
seek additional information.
Engineer
Define a simple problem
that can be solved
through the development
of a new or improved
object or tool.
Define a design problem that involves
the development of a process or
system with interacting components
and criteria and constraints that may
include social, technical and/or
environmental considerations.
* From NGSS Appendix F
2. Developing and using models
Examples of Learning Skills*
Grades K-2
High School
Science
Distinguish between a
model and actual object,
process, and/or events the
model represents.
Evaluate merits and limitations of two
different models of the same proposed
process in order to select or revise a
model that best fits the evidence.
Engineer
Develop a simple model
Evaluate merits and limitations of two
based on evidence to
different models of the same proposed
represent a proposed tool. tool or mechanism in order to select or
revise a model that best fits the design
criteria.
* From NGSS Appendix F
3. Planning and Carrying Out
Investigations
Examples of Learning Skills*
Grades K-2
High School
Science
With guidance, plan and
conduct an investigation
in collaboration with
peers.
Plan an investigation individually and
collaboratively to produce data to
serve as the basis for evidence as part
of building and revising models or
supporting explanations for
phenomena.
Engineer
Make observations of a
proposed object, tool, or
solution to determine if it
solves a problem or meets
a goal.
Manipulate variables and collect data
about a complex model of a proposed
process or system to identify failure
points
* From NGSS Appendix F
Computational Thinking
• Translating cross-cutting concepts into cognitive
skills
• Using scientific and engineering practices to
enhance learning
• Lessons
• Leverage and improve EDOSC lessons
• Creating new lessons
June 2013
Planning for NGSS
• Lesson clearinghouse
• Issues: Timing, budget
15
Computational Thinking
June 2013
Discussion
16

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