DRA2 TRAINING Developmental Reading Assessment Thompson School District Fall 2012 GOOD READERS P. 7-9 BENCHMARK ASSESSMENT BOOKS P.12-18 Fiction Nonfiction A-2 3-6 8-14 16 16-28 28 30-38 38 40 40 DETERMINING STARTING LEVEL Returning Student Fall – use spring DRA2 New Students Information from previous independent level as a starting place. DRA2 Quick Check Spring – use last running record Use informal reading level from progress monitoring data and/or classroom observations of student reading level (comparable book titles on p. 37-39) school if available engagement information to offer level choices (comparable book titles on p. 37-39) TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P.19 Scores To be independent, a reader MUST meet the benchmark in BOTH oral reading fluency and comprehension. Teacher selects the text for levels A-24. Students may be given a choice of texts at level 28 and above. TSD – We are determining the highest independent level. Refer to TSD handout. TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P. 19 Reading Engagement: Levels A-24 student responses are recorded next to reading engagement questions on guide. Levels 28 and above students complete a Student Reading Survey which may be given individually or in a group. Responses may be dictated or independently written. P. 69-73 provide support for understanding about reading engagement responses from students TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P.19 Oral Reading Fluency Levels 1-3 – if student is unable to name half the items pictured in the text, use your best judgment to decide whether you should continue with the assessment. In introduction and preview, for levels 4-16, students do a “picture walk.” Teacher directions are in bold print. Levels 14 and above, timing student’s reading is required. Note the reader’s phrasing, expression, and attention to punctuation. TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P.19 Oral Predictions NOTE: Levels A-16 have an Introduction and Preview Levels 18-24 students do an Oral Prediction. Note and count the number of possible events or actions that students predict. Students do NOT use the text when making their predictions. Levels 28-38 Read aloud the questions/prompts on page 1 in the Student Booklet, and record the student’s responses on the same page. Do NOT give additional prompts. NOTE: Students may use the book when responding to the Text Features prompts and nonfiction Prediction prompt, but the book should be CLOSED when they make their predictions for fiction books. Level 40 and above Students must do a written prediction TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P.19 Record of Oral Reading The student’s miscues, including substitutions, omissions, and insertions, as well as repetitions and self-corrections are marked on the Record of Oral Reading. If student skips as an entire line, redirect the student to reread and score as one error. If a students miscues a proper noun multiple times in a text, the first miscue is counted as an error. The subsequent miscues of the same name are not counted as errors. Repetitions of words or phrases are NOT errors. They should be recorded as they give you important information about a child’s processing. Mispronunciations are NOT errors if they are due to speech impairment, English Language Learners, and/or dialect. See p. 143 for more guidelines. TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES P.19-20 After Oral Reading: Record time on guide and reference Oral Reading Words Per Minute chart for the WPM range. Count miscues and self corrections and determine student’s percentage of accuracy. If the student’s score falls in a shaded area for either WPM or Accuracy, STOP! Reassess at a lower level. If the student is reading below the grade-level benchmark, administer appropriate DRA Word Analysis Tasks at another time. To determine tasks see p. 16 in Word Analysis book. TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES. P.21 Comprehension For levels 4-24, students orally retell the story. A story overview is provided. Helpful hint: use a highlighter to highlight as student is retelling. The only prompts that may be used are the ones provided on the guide. NO EXCEPTIONS! Be sure to check and/or tally the prompt/s used and the number of times prompted. For levels 28-40 students write a story summary. Any student, regardless of grade level, being administered a level 28-40 MUST do the written summary and it should be scored against the DRA2 Examples of Student Written Responses (p.88-119) Please see chart on p. 74 for more information. TEACHER OBSERVATION GUIDES. P.21 Teacher Analysis This may be done immediately following the administration OR it may be analyzed at a later time. DRA2 CONTINUUM Independent: Total score for Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension must be at least within the Independent range on the Continuum Instructional: Total score for Oral Reading Fluency or Comprehension is within the Instructional range on the Continuum. Advanced: Total score for Oral Reading Fluency and Comprehension must be within the Advanced range on the Continuum. DRA2 CONTINUUM Reading Engagement Use the information from the Student Reading Survey and the Student Booklet to circle the descriptors that best describe the student’s responses for Reading Engagement and Comprehension. Levels 28-40 Use the student’s responses on the Student Reading Survey Refer to p. 68-73 for exemplars of student responses P. 69 = A-3 P. 71 = 4-24 P. 72-73 = 28-38 DRA2 CONTINUUM Oral Reading Fluency Use your notes from your observations about the student’s phrasing, monitoring/self-corrections, and problem solving on unknown words, expression and accuracy rate to fill out the Oral Reading Fluency section of the continuum Levels 4-12: If a student reads a text with 100% accuracy, then they score a 4 on Problem Solving Unknown Words DRA2 CONTINUUM - COMPREHENSION A-3 = Printed Language Concepts (directionality, 1-1 Correspondence, Words/letters) 4-24 – use info from oral retelling 28-40 – use info from student booklet **use teacher guide for exemplars pp. 80-119 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION P.57 Students reading text levels 28-40 are not reassessed using a lower DRA2 level text if their total comprehension score falls within the Instructional range on the Continuum. Without instruction it is highly improbable that they will perform any better when asked to write similar responses with a slightly lower level text. It is important to teach Extending readers how to respond in writing to demonstrate their comprehension. Providing opportunities to respond in writing scaffolds their ability to think more deeply about a text and prepares them for proficiency tests at the district and state levels. INSTRUCTIONAL DECISIONS P. 121-129 Reference pp. 121-129 Next steps Delve more deeply Instructional coach meetings Support from Kathy KINDERGARTEN Word Analysis P, 9 in Word Analysis book Handout recording sheet Explore tasks in group Questions and debrief whole group APPROPRIATE ACCOMMODATIONS The only accommodations used when administering DRA2 are those documented on an IEP, 504 Plan, or IAAP The following accommodations MAY be appropriate and documented: Scribe or Assisted Technology (Level 28 and above) The following are NOT documented accommodations for DRA2: Extended Time: There is no time limit for a student taking the DRA2. Teacher Read Directions: The protocol for DRA2 is to read the directions to students. Using the Spanish version of DRA2 (Lectura) is not an accomodation, but rather an alternative admissible administration of the assessment. Alternate settings and frequent breaks are admissible for DRA2 administration, therefore they are not an accommodation. I INTERRATER RELIABILITY INTERRATER RELIABILITY Level 4 – Where is My Hat? Choose a student reader and a teacher Other two are observers/recorders Teacher administer level 4 to student reader Teacher and observers record student responses on observation guide Complete DRA2 continuum independently using p. 71 & 83 in guide Compare data on continuum and discuss Group debrief INTERRATER RELIABILITY Level 16 – Nonfiction – Animal Homes Choose a student reader and a teacher Other two are observers/recorders Teacher administer level 16 to student reader Teacher and observers record student responses on observation guide Complete DRA2 continuum independently using p. 71, 80 & 83 in guide Compare data on continuum and discuss Group debrief INTERRATER RELIABILITY Level 28 – Fiction – Missing Sneakers Read story In partners, score and complete continuum. Use pp. 72-73, 92-93 in guide as a reference. Compare scores with other partnership Discuss noticings and/or questions Group debrief COMPLIANCE VS. BEST PRACTICE How might you support teachers in moving from using DRA2 for compliance to using it for best practice?