Which of the following is the correct order of events in the cell cycle? 95% A. B. C. D. G1, G2, S, mitosis, cytokinesis G1, S, G2, mitosis, cytokinesis S, G1, G2, cytokinesis, mitosis S, G1, G2, mitosis, cytokinesis 3% A. B. 1% 1% C. D. Which of the following is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by fixing damaged DNA in cancerous cells? 73% A. B. C. D. HER2 Trisomy 21 P53 BRCA1 24% A. 1% 1% B. C. D. Cancer detection and treatment • Early detection increases odds of survival hange in bowel or bladder habits sore that does not heal nusual bleeding or discharge hickening or lump ndigestion or difficulty swallowing bvious change in wart or mole agging cough or hoarseness • There are different detection methods for different cancers Detecting Cancer • Blood or urine tests – Cancer cells may be observed under the microscope – Some cancer cells release high levels of cancer markers that may be detected • Example : Ca125 marker of produced by ovarian cells • These tests are not always reliable, as cancer markers can be produced by normal cells, and their levels vary • Imaging methods – X-rays – MRI scan:uses radiowaves focused by magnet – CT scan – Ultrasound • Biopsy: surgical removal of cells or fluid for analysis – Needle biopsy – removal is made using a needle – Laparascope – surgical instrument with a light, camera, and small scalpel • Colonoscopy – view colon with camera mounted on snake-like device Polyp – an abnormal growth • DNA testing – BRCA1 or BRCA2 for breast or ovarian cancer Cancer cells within which of the following biopsy samples would be the best indicator that the cancer has metastasized? 58% A. B. C. D. Liver Pancreas Ovary Lymph node 15% A. 14% 14% B. C. D. Cancer Treatment • Chemotherapy – drugs that selectively kill dividing cells – Combination of different drugs used (“cocktail”) – Interrupt cell division in different ways – Normal dividing cells are also killed, leading to side effects • hair follicles • bone marrow • stomach lining • Radiation therapy – use of high-energy particles to destroy cancer cells – Damages their DNA so they can’t continue to divide or grow – Most effective against small localized tumors that are near the surface. Cancer Treatment – new biological targets • Vaccination – Gardasil® - first vaccine against cervical cancer – Most effective when given prior to infection by HPV • Molecularly targeted drugs – Gleevec® - leukemia CNN Video Clip Custom cancer treatments for you! April 2010 : FDA approved the first cancer treatment vaccine, Provenge® Your questions on cancer???