Biomimicry - Jonathan M. Weaver

Report
Biomimicry
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Tools for Innovation:
Biomimicry
Jonathan Weaver & Darrell Kleinke
UDM Mechanical Engineering Department
[email protected] [email protected]
Biomimicry
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References
• As noted within
Biomimicry
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What is the world’s tallest skyscraper?
… and what does a flower have to
do with it?
Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burj_Dubai#cite_note-30
on 20091206
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Quote
“Those who are inspired by a model other than Nature, a
mistress above all masters, are laboring in vain.”
Leonardo DaVinci
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Biomimicry
(or Bionics, Biomimetics, or Biognosis)
“Life has been performing design experiments on Earth’s
R&D lab for 3.8 billion years. What’s flourishing on the
planet today are the best ideas---those that perform well in
context, while economizing on energy and materials.
Whatever your company’s design challenge, the odds are high
that one or more of the world’s 30 million creatures has not
only faced the same challenge, but has evolved effective
strategies to solve it.”
http://www.biomimicryguild.com/indexguild.html
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Nature’s Laws, Strategies, and Principles
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Nature runs on sunlight
Nature uses only the energy it needs
Nature fits form to function
Nature recycles everything
Nature rewards cooperation
Nature banks on diversity
Nature demands local expertise
Nature curbs excesses from within
Nature taps the power of limits
Source: Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, Janine Benyus
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http://www.5min.com/Video/Learn-About-Velcro-161535230
Biomimicry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Eastgate_Centre,_Harare,_Zimbabwe.jpg
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Biomimicry
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Termite Thermal Regulation
• Incredible ability of termites to maintain virtually constant
temperature and humidity in their Sub-Saharan Africa
despite outside temperature variation from 3 °C to 42
°C
• Project TERMES (Termite Emulation of Regulatory
Mound Environments by Simulation) scanned a termite
mound, created 3-D images of the mound structure and
provided the first ever glimpse of construction that may
likely change the way we build our own buildings
• The Eastgate Centre, a mid-rise office complex in Harare,
Zimbabwe, stays cool without air conditioning and uses
only 10% of the energy of a conventional building its size
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomimicry
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Lizard Inspired Sandbot
• Sand is slippery and can
act as a fluid or a solid
and accurate models of
the behavior of sand
have yet to be
developed
• Georgia Tech is
studying how the zebratailed lizard runs across
the desert to build
robots that can traverse
any type of terrain –
including sand
http://spectrum.ieee.org/robotics/r
obotics-software/march-ofthe-sandbots (20091105)
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Echolocating Cane
• U Leeds (in the UK) modeled
the echolocation technique used
by bats
• They adapted their results to
develop a cane for the visually
impaired
• The UltraCane is manufactured,
marketed and sold by Sound
Foresight Ltd.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biomimicry
http://www.soundforesight.co.uk/new/ultracane5.htm
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Biomimicry – Water Mixer Example
• Water agencies must
constantly mix water to
prevent stagnation
• The Calla Lilly’s
centripetal spirals provide
an ideal flow of liquid
• The mixer shown runs
with a fraction of the
power required for a
conventional mixer
Source: http://www.treehugger.com/galleries/2009/01/nature-inspired-innovation-9-examples-of-biomimicry-at-work-image-gallery.php?page=3
http://www.paxscientific.com/
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Butterfly Wing Inspires
Glare-Proof Displays
• Early cell phone displaces were difficult
to read in bright light conditions
• Nanoscale structures on the Blue
Morpho butterfly wing cause incoming
light waves to interfere with one
another, reflecting only specific
wavelengths of brilliant color
• The iMod display flashes brilliant
colors while drawing only a fraction of
the electricity required to power a
typical liquid crystal display
Sources: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2007/06/01/100050991/index.htm
http://jartiuch.wordpress.com/2007/11/15/qualcomm-imod-displays/
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Self Cleaning Paint
• The ‘Lotus Effect’ of how
lotus leaves bead water to
remain clean has inspired
a new generation of selfcleaning paints
http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=v
iew_file&file_id=EC129p27.pdf
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Shinkansen
• Front end modeled after
kingfisher’s beak to minimize
tunnel entry/exit shockwave
• Pantograph supports have
serrations modeled after owl
plumage to reduce wind noise
Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by
Nature, J. Benyus, Perrenial NY, 2002
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Venus Flytrap Inspires New Way to Trap
Nuclear Waste
• The structure has
"windows" measuring 0.8
nanometers by 0.3
nanometres - just large
enough for caesium ions
to squeeze through
• Once inside, caesium
bonds with sulphide ions
triggering closing of the
window
Source: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527455.300-molecular-venus-flytrap-could-munch-nuclear-waste.html
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Eiffel Tower
• Lattice structure inspired by the
orderly latticework of tiny ridges in
the thighbone
• Such bone-inspired latticework has
become an architectural norm today
http://www.harunyahya.com/books/science/biomimetics/biomimetics08.php
Biomimicry
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UK Armed Forces Clothing Inspired by
Pine Cones
• It is difficult to correctly dress
for the weather and layers can
be cumbersome
• UK researchers are
investigating clothing made of
materials that react to
temperature and moisture,
much like pine cones
Source: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/10/1013_041013_smart_clothing.html
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Electric Eels Inspire Possibly New Battery
Technology
• An experiment at a Japanese
aquarium that used eels to light
Christmas lights inspired NIST
researchers to build artificial
cells that copy the eel’s electric
generation capability
Source:
http://www.economist.com/science-technology/technology-quarterly/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15048719
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Fishbone Audio Sensor
• Tokyo Electron has created the fishbone sensor, a new type of
audio sensor using the inner working of the human ear as a
model
• Each of the 24 cantilevers of the fishbone sensor works like a
human ear membrane and picks up individual frequencies
http://www.diginfo.tv/2007/04/16/070413-bs-stc-electron-don.php
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Honeycomb Inspired Tire
• UW-Madison and a
Wausau, Wis., company
have come up with a 37inch, bullet and bomb-proof
Humvee tire based on a
polymeric web so cool
looking there's no need for
hub caps
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Source: http://news.cnet.com/8301-13639_3-10098240-42.html
Biomimicry
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A Material Based on Sharkskin Stops
Bacterial Breakouts
• Similar to the texture of
sharkskin, Sharklet’s threemicrometer-wide diamondshaped pattern prevents
bacteria from taking root
• Scientists have printed that
pattern on an adhesive film
that will repel bacteria
pathogens from hospitals and
public restrooms
Source: www.popsci.com/science/article/2009-10/saving-skin#
Biomimicry
Toyota Working on Night Vision System
Inspired by Dung Beetles
• Toyota engineers have
developed camera
software which takes
inspiration from nocturnal
dung beetles, bees and
moths that can see across a
remarkable range of color,
brightness and shadow
http://www.popsci.com/technology/article/2010-01/full-colornight-vision-drivers-based-insect-eyes
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Biomimicry
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Robo Grasshopper
• Small robots have a tough time
on rocky terrain
• Swiss engineers noticed
grasshoppers and locusts can
quickly cover up to three feet
of uneven ground in a single
hop
• They built a batch of microbots
that can propel themselves
eight feet into the air
Source: http://www.popsci.com/stuart-fox/article/2008-10/robo-hop
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New Medicine Inspired by Frog Skin
• U Penn scientists have developed a potent compound that
mimics molecules in frog skin that stab bacteria to death
• Bacteria are adapting to conventional antibiotics by
modifying their receptors to prevent the antibiotic from
taking hold
• Countering this new drug would require the bacteria to
fully restructure its membrane
“A Big Leap for Antibiotics,” Popular Science
Magazine, January 2008.
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Mercedes-Benz Bionic Concept Vehicle
• Modeled after the boxfish, it has one of the lowest Cd’s
ever tested (0.19 for the concept car)
Source: http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/biomimicry.html
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Ford Example
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In 2005, Ford's Volvo Division developed an anticollision system based on the way locusts swarm without
crashing into one another
Source:
http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/content/feb2008/id
20080211_074559.htm
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Regen Energy
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Other Designs Inspired by Nature
• Airplanes modeled after birds (wing and body shapes,
falcon beak)
• Morphing airplane wings that change shape according to
the speed and length of a flight, inspired by birds that have
differently-shaped wings depending on how fast they fly
• Fish-inspired scales that easily slide over each other to
enable the morphing airplane wings
• Boat hulls designed after the shapes of fish
• Torpedoes that swim like tuna
http://blogs.asee.org/goengineering/biomimicry-natural-designs/
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Other Designs Inspired by Nature
• Submarine and boats hull material that imitates dolphin
and shark skin membranes
• Radar and sonar navigation technology and medical
imaging inspired by the echolocation abilities of bats
• Swimsuit, triathlon and bobsled clothing fabric made with
woven ribbing and texture to reduce drag while
maintaining movement, mimics shark’s skin
• Probes for sampling liquids of various viscosities modeled
after a butterfly’s proboscis
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How to Think Like a Biomimic
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Determine what you want to “do” (not “make”)
Identify key functions/purpose
Look to see how nature achieves those functions
Go observe nature’s genius and conduct research or talk to
experts to find patterns or principles which may work for
your problem
• Brainstorm , design and converse
• Refine the design
Source: Biomimicry Guild, La Cusinga, Costa Rica
Design Workshop, 2007
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Biomimicry Taxonomy
• A nice taxonomy is available at:
– http://www.asknature.org/strategy/7e5683b29f576ebcb
7b39f567b7768c2#
• Link to word doc

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