Restorative Justice - Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

Report
Integrating Restorative Practices
in a SW-PBS System:
Can we reduce the need for
suspension?
Tichelle Bruntmyer
University of Missouri
WHAT’S THE
PROBLEM?
Zero Tolerance Policies
 What’s
your gut reaction?
Where it came from

Gun-Free Schools Act (1994)
◦ Congressional response to rising juvenile arrest rates of late
80s/early 90s
◦ State laws that mandated expulsion of any student bringing a weapon
to school for at least a year = federal education funds
74 school shootings since Newtown
Where it went

Suspension/expulsion for misdemeanors and
minor offenses
◦ Approximately 2 million children a year
 5% for weapon possession
 43% for insubordination
Where it Goes

TX study found 1 nonweapon
suspension/expulsion
tripled a student’s
chances for JJ
involvement
What’s the problem?

Deprives students of educational
opportunities
◦ ODRs
◦ ISS/OSS
 1 in 14 students in 2006 school year
◦ Expulsion
◦ Increases likelihood for JJ involvement

Fails to make schools safer
IS RESTORATIVE
JUSTICE THE ANSWER?
Definition of Restorative Justice

“… a way of responding to criminal
behaviour by balancing the needs of the
community, the victims and the offenders.
It is an evolving concept that has given
rise to different interpretation in different
countries, one around which there is not
always a perfect consensus.”
(United Nations, 2006)
Definition of Restorative Justice

“… a broad term which encompasses a
growing social movement to
institutionalize peaceful approaches to
harm, problem-solving and violations of
legal and human rights…”
(Center for Restorative Justice, 2011)
Definition of Restorative Justice

“Rather than privileging the law,
professionals and the state, restorative
resolutions engage those who are harmed,
wrongdoers and their affected communities
in search of solutions that promote repair,
reconciliation and the rebuilding of
relationships. Restorative justice seeks to
build partnerships to reestablish mutual
responsibility for constructive responses for
wrongdoing in our communities.”
(Center for Restorative Justice, 2011)
Restorative Justice in 3’s

3 assumptions
◦ Needs are created when people and
relationships are harmed
◦ Needs lead to obligations
◦ The obligation is to “put right” the harm
(Van Wormer & Walker, 2013)
Restorative Justice in 3’s

3 principles
◦ Repairs the harm caused by the wrongdoing
(restoration)
◦ Encourages responsibility for actions
(accountability)
◦ Involves the victims and community
(engagement)
(Van Wormer & Walker, 2013)
Restorative Justice in 3’s

3 underlying values
◦ Respect
◦ Responsibility
◦ Relationship
(Van Wormer & Walker, 2013)
Restorative Justice in 3’s

3 central questions
◦ Who has been hurt?
◦ What are their needs?
◦ Who has the responsibility to restore the
relationship?
(Van Wormer & Walker, 2013)
Restorative Justice in 3’s

3 stakeholder groups
◦ Victim and their family
◦ Offender and their family
◦ Relevant community
(Van Wormer & Walker, 2013)
Pause for thought….

Consider the application of Restorative
Justice with our kids…
◦ What was it designed to address?
◦ What types of issues are we wanting it to
address in schools?
◦ What adaptations would be needed for
application in school?
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
IN SCHOOLS
RJ in Schools

Many names
◦ Restorative practices, processes, approaches,
discipline
Serves as an alternative to zero tolerance
 Grounded in respect, responsibility, &
relationships
 Necessitates a shift from exclusion to
connectedness with the school
 Focuses on community-based problem
solving

RJ in Schools

Meant to address harm and…
◦
◦
◦
◦
Create climate to promote healthy relationships
Build community
Develop social-emotional understanding and skills
Enhance teaching and learning
RJ in Schools

Restorative Circles
◦ In the classroom:




Build community
Problem solve
Foster student-teacher relationship
Provide space for respectful dialogue to democratically
establish classroom values
RJ in Schools

Restorative Circles
◦ Outside the classroom:
 May include conferencing with administrators
 May include peer juries
 May be used for more intense interventions such as:
 Repairing damage
 Reintegrating back into school after suspension/expulsion
 Resolving differences
One Suggestion…
(Pavelka, 2012)
Early Reports of RJ in Schools

MN DoE
◦ 45-63% reduction of behavior referrals and
suspensions in 2 schools, increase in academics

Cole Middle School, CA
◦ 87% reduction in suspensions

W Philadelphia High School, PA
◦ 52% reduction in violent acts and serious
incidents in ‘07-’08; additional 40% in ’08-’09

Denver Public Middle Schools
◦ 90% reduction in ODRs and OSS across 7
schools
An example:
ED WHITE MIDDLE
SCHOOL
SAN ANTONIO, TX
Ed White Middle School
San Antonio, TX

“Restorative Discipline”
◦ 3 year project beginning 2012-2013 school year

Goal: decrease instances of…
◦
◦
◦
◦
Bullying
Discipline referrals
Assignments to DAEP
Improve relationships between teachers,
administrators, and students
Ed White Middle School
San Antonio, TX

Demographics
◦ Students (6th thru 8th grades)
 985





30% African American
53% Hispanic
13% Caucasian
4% Asian/Pacific Islander
81.6% economically disadvantaged
◦ Teachers
 15% African American
 20% Hispanic
 61% Caucasian
Ed White Middle School
San Antonio, TX

Questions:
◦ What is the impact of RD on risk factors (e.g.
suspension, absenteeism, bullying) of 6th grade
students?
◦ What is the impact on 6th grade school climate?
◦ What is the experience of administrators who
use RD for student misconduct and teachers
who use RD in their classrooms?
Ed White Middle School:
Implementation

Whole-school approach
◦ Start with 6th grade, add a grade each year
Leadership Response Team + outside
consultant
 Teacher training:

◦ 2 days
◦ Restorative justice and conducting restorative
circles
◦ 6th grade teachers, principal, assistant principal, all
staff associated with discipline and counseling
Ed White Middle School:
Implementation

Classroom circles
◦ Initially used to build community, problem solving
class issues, teaching, & classroom management
◦ Later, restorative circles for discipline
◦ Eventually, 4th period used for RD circles

Leadership Response Team (LRT)
◦ Dealt with more serious offenses

Outside consultant
◦ Meet with LRT and teachers
◦ Visit classrooms
◦ Co-facilitate circles, when needed
Ed White Middle School:
Restorative Circles/Conferences

Circle/Conference Agreement Forms:
◦ Name and grade of participants
◦ Description of incident
◦ Agreement Details
 How will harm be repaired?
 How will harm be avoided in the future?
 How will person who did the harm give back to the
community?
 What support will be given to the person harmed?
◦ Monitoring Plan
◦ Signatures
Ed White Middle School:
Restorative Circles/Conferences

Circle-It Forms
◦ Requested by students
◦ Student uses to initiate circle or conference
◦ Student indicates urgency of meeting
 “today” or “tomorrow”
◦ Primarily used to deal with peer conflict
Ed White Middle School:
Restorative Circles/Conferences
120
100
80
RD Conferences
Circle It! Forms
60
40
20
0
Sept Oct Nov Dec
Jan
Feb Mar Apr May
Ed White Middle School:
Rates of Suspension
6th Grade
% Change
2011-2012
2012-2013
Partial day ISS
75
167 (RD)
+123%
Partial Suspension
12
11
.8%
ISS
468
329
30%
OSS
66
11
84%
Ed White Middle School:
Infractions
Failure to follow direction
Tardy (ODR)
Disrupt class
3 strikes
Walk out of class
Absense/Truancy
Detention no show
Profanity
Verbal confrontation
Physical confrontation
Inappropriate remarks
Horseplay
0
100
200
300
400
500
Ed White Middle School:
Bullying & RD Implementation
10
9
8
7
6
Bullying
RD Implementation
5
4
3
2
1
0
Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Ed White Middle School:
Findings
OSS: 84% decrease
 ISS: 30% decrease
 School Climate Survey: parents and
students had stronger sense of disciplinary
fairness
 Use and acceptance of RD was not
consistent across teachers
 Students responded favorably (e.g. Circle-it)
 Teachers who used RD in the classroom
improved relationships with students

Ed White Middle School:
Recommendations
Teacher training includes practical application
through concrete examples/role play
 PD opportunities in RD throughout the year
 Create a teacher handbook of philosophy,
practices, and procedures
 Plan for RD in non-classroom areas
 Provide better/frequent feedback to teachers
 Engage students through peer-mediated
circles

Pause for thought…

84% reduction in OSS and 30% reduction in
ISS, but…
“These figures do not indicate a change in
the frequency or nature of misconduct or
more major offenses. Rather, they show the
success of the school’s commitment not to
extrude students or use punitive approaches
to discipline.” (p. 6)
What could explain this finding?
IS THERE A BETTER
APPROACH?
Restorative practices within PBIS

SW-PBIS
◦ Provides a tiered structure for organizing levels
of prevention and making decisions regarding
support needs
◦ Offers a way to collect and analyze data

Goals of RJ and PBIS are similar, so how can
they work together?
RJ in Tier 1

Goal of Tier 1:
◦ Establish a predictable and positive environment
◦ Direct teaching of expectations

RJ Inclusion: Circles
◦ Periodically at the beginning of the school day to
review or re-teach
◦ Used to pre-correct behavior
 How would theft of property affect the class?
◦ Discuss issues that are concerning the class
 Current or local events that might be concerning
RJ in Tier 2

Goal of Tier 2:
◦ Provide additional support for students who
aren’t successful at the universal level

RJ Inclusion
◦ Peer juries
 Proceed with caution!
◦ Group-based restorative protocols
 Includes person who committed harm, person harmed,
teacher, and any other relevant stakeholders
 Plans to prevent future occurrence
RJ in Tier 3

Goal of Tier 3:
◦ To provide individualized support for students
with the most pervasive needs

RJ Inclusion
◦ Administrative conferencing
 Student(s) committing harm, student(s) harmed,
teacher, school administrator, parents of involved
students
 Develop plan to repair damage, teach appropriate
replacement behaviors, restore relationships, prevent
future occurrences
DATA!
How many whole class (tier 1), small group
(tier 2), administrative (tier 3) conferences
are you having?
 Who initiates advanced tier conferences?
(i.e. teachers, admin, students)
 Is the integration of restorative practices
having an influence on ODRs, suspensions,
and expulsions? If not, why?

Food for thought…

Conduct a resource analysis
◦ How can this fit within our current system?
◦ What will it cost us in time, personnel, etc.?
◦ What are our needs according to our data?

Don’t settle
◦ Decreases in suspension and expulsion are
GREAT! but it’s not enough
◦ Continue to strive for high rates of appropriate
behavior by teaching expectations
Food for thought…

Remember what you know about behavior
◦ Inappropriate behavior will continue to occur
unless you teach an acceptable replacement

Be patient!
◦ RJ involves empathy
THANK YOU!!
Tichelle Bruntmyer
[email protected]
References
Armour, M. (2013). Ed White middle school restorative discipline
evaluation: Implementation and impact, 2012/2013 sixth grade.
The Institute for Restorative Justice and Restorative
Dialogue. Austin: The University of Texas at Austin.
Gonzalez, T. (2012). Keeping kids in schools: Restorative justice,
punitive discipline, and the school to prison pipeline. Journal
of Law & Education , 41 (2), 281-335.
Kang-Brown, J., Trone, J., & Daftary-Kapur, T. (2013). A generation
later: What we've learned about zero tolerance in schools.
Center on Youth Justice. New York: VERA Institute of
Justice.
Pavelka, S. (2012). Practices and policies for implementing
restorative justice within schools. The Prevention Reseracher ,
20 (1), 15-17.
van Wormer, K., & Walker, L. (2013). Restorative justice today: Practical
applications. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

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