Persuasive Appeals and Antigone

Persuasive Appeals and
Types of Appeals
 When using persuasion, three types of appeals can
be used:
Logical Appeals
 A logical appeal depends on reasoning and evidence,
and appeals more to the audience’s intellect than
their emotions.
 Logical appeals should be present for the argument
to be successful.
 Logical appeals can be proven.
Logical Appeals
 Logical reasoning depends on these:
Deductive Reasoning: a general conclusion that leads to a specific
conclusion; usually a three-part statement called a syllogism
consisting of these:
1. General Statement (All boys are smart)
 2. Particular Example (William is a boy)
 3. Conclusion (Therefore, William is smart.)
Reliance on Authority
Facts presented as evidence (not opinions)
Tradition (provides precedent)
Effective Metaphors (a comparison without the use of like or as)
Logical Appeals
 A logical appeal has a counterargument, which
consists of two parts (concession + refutation).
A. Concession—an expression of concern for the feelings of
those who may disagree with the writer’s position. It shows
the writer is a logical thinker and a concerned, fair-minded
person who realizes that every argument has two sides.
B. Refutation—asserting that an opponent’s arguments are
wrong and arguing against them.
Emotional Appeal
 An emotional appeal appeals to the needs that all
humans have in common: physical, psychological and
Physical needs: life and health (food, water, shelter)
Psychological needs: person’s need for love and respect
Social needs: the need for freedom, for respect, for acceptance
 We encounter emotional appeals frequently in our every
day lives:
Commercials pleading with us to make a donation
Clubs asking for donations to help the community
Children telling their parents they will be rejected by friends if they
don’t get to do something…
Ethical Appeal
 Ethical appeals presents the writer as a person who
may be trusted, a person who possesses good
character and can argue in ways that reveal that good
character. The audience should see the writer as a
person like themselves or like someone they would
like to be like. Credibility is established.
Credibility can be established by maintaining a respectful tone,
avoiding inflammatory language, and by using collective first
person pronouns such as “we” and “us”
Logical vs. Emotional?
 Over 75,000 Japanese children have been without
clean water for 3 days due to the earthquake and
 A photo of a child with a black eye and torn clothes is
in an ad for the Stop Child Abuse American
 All the sophomores are skipping school to go to
King’s Island. You tell your parents that you will lose
friends if you don’t attend too.
 Studies have shown that drivers who talk on their
cell phone and 20% more likely to have an accident.
Connecting to Antigone
These lines are from the Prologue:
Antigone: “There it is, and now you can prove what
you are: A true sister, or a traitor to your family.”
Which type of appeal has Antigone used?
Which of the human needs is Antigone appealing to?
SOCIAL—the need to be respected
Now Let’s Review Creon’s First Speech…
 What types of appeals has Creon used in his initial
address to the people in Scene 1?
Consider This…
In responses to a suggestion from the choragus,
Creon says this about the gods:
“The gods favor this corpse? Why? How had he
(Polyneices) served them? Tried to loot their
temples, burn their images, Yes, and the whole state,
and its laws with it!”
Creon has used what type of appeal?
LOGICAL—the fact that Polyneices destroyed temples as part
of battle is a fact.
Apply the Appeals
You would like to borrow your parent’s Mercedes
to take your significant other out on a date. What
emotional and logical appeals might you use to
persuade them to let you have their very nice and
very expensive car?
Write the speech you would present to your
parents. When finished, highlight your emotional
appeals in GREEN or BLUE, and your logical
appeals in YELLOW.
Where are the appeals in Antigone?
 Create a chart that identifies at least 2 examples of
logical and emotional appeals in the play and 1
example of an ethical appeal.
Type of Appeal
Ethical (need 1 different
Lines and Page Number
How do you persuade your parents?
 What would you say to your parents to get them to
allow you to do the following? Write both a
for each situation. Add this to your appeals work
from yesterday.
You want to go to a party with your boyfriend where there will be
college students. Mom and Dad say you are too young to hang out
with college kids.
Mom and Dad are going out of town. You want to stay at your
house by yourself instead of staying with Granny.
Creating Appeals…
 As scene 2 ended, we learned that Antigone was
engaged to Haemon (Creon’s son and Antigone’s first
cousin!). Creon plans to kill his son’s fiance and
believes it would be easy for his son to find another
 Imagine that you are Haemon. Write a logical
appeal and an emotional appeal that would be
appropriate for him to use as he begged his father to
spare Antigone’s life. Think about what does and
does not motivate Creon at this point.

similar documents