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FBI Challenge: Exponential Growth of Product Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Intro • Using math to solve a biological science problem • Students will use their knowledge of: • Exponential equations • Molecular biology HS Biology Standards 5c.Students know how genetic engineering(biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and agricultural products. 5d.* Students know how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules. Algebra II Standard Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential models and solve problems Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models F-LE 1. Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear functions and with exponential functions a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals Learning Goals • Apply the steps of PCR to predict how modifications will affect the production of novel products • Know how to predict the amount of product given a number of cycles by looking at a graph of a PCR reaction Your Offer Dear biology student at Dynamic High School, You have been selected to be a consultant for my FBI crime lab. I’ve heard of your molecular biology skills and would prefer asking your help instead of my colleagues. I was given an offer from DNA-Mart for a PCR using a supply of a single primer. Is this a valid option? Sincerely, Prudence B. Thrifty PCR: Exponential Growth x y=2 • y number of copies of DNA • X number of cycles VIDEO • www.dnalc.org • Click on “3-D Animation Library” • Under “Experiments & Techniques”, click “Polymerase Chain Reaction” • (Third one on the top row) Strip Sequence Answers 1. The first process in Polymerase Chain Reaction is to raise the temperature to near boiling 2. After this step the DNA denatures into single strands 3. The temperature is decreased. 4. Then the short DNA sequences known as primers bind, or anneal, to complementary matches on the target DNA sequences 5. As the temperature is slightly raised, Taq polymerase, an enzyme, binds to primed sequences and adds nucleotides 6. For additional cycles the process of denaturing, annealing and extending are repeated to make additional DNA copies Your Materials • Colored Strips (DNA Strands) • Paperclips (Primers) • Calculator • Graph Paper • Ruler Prudence B. Thrifty wants to know… If PCR using a single type of primer can yield the same amount of product as a normal PCR with two primers. Your Offer Dear biology student at Dynamic High School, You have been selected to be a consultant for my FBI crime lab. I’ve heard of your molecular biology skills and would prefer asking your help instead of my colleagues. I was given an offer from DNA-Mart for a PCR using a supply of a single primer. Is this a valid option? Sincerely, Prudence B. Thrifty Your Reward Would you rather be paid • A lump sum of $10,000 • $2 today to be doubled everyday for fifteen (15) days