### Interdisciplinary #2-Biological Sciences & Math

```FBI Challenge:
Exponential Growth of
Product Using
Polymerase Chain
Reaction (PCR)
Intro
• Using math to solve a
biological science problem
• Students will use their
knowledge of:
• Exponential equations
• Molecular biology
HS Biology Standards
5c.Students know how genetic
engineering(biotechnology) is used to produce novel
biomedical and agricultural products.
5d.* Students know how basic DNA technology
(restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel
electrophoresis, ligation, and transformation) is used to
construct recombinant DNA molecules.
Algebra II Standard
Construct and compare linear, quadratic, and exponential
models and solve problems
F-LE
1. Distinguish between situations that can be modeled with linear
functions and with exponential functions
a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences
over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow
by equal factors over equal intervals
Learning Goals
• Apply the steps of PCR to predict how modifications
will affect the production of novel products
• Know how to predict the amount of product given a
number of cycles by looking at a graph of a PCR
reaction
Dear biology student at Dynamic High School,
You have been selected to be a consultant for my
FBI crime lab. I’ve heard of your molecular biology
colleagues. I was given an offer from DNA-Mart for a
PCR using a supply of a single primer. Is this a valid
option?
Sincerely,
Prudence B. Thrifty
PCR: Exponential Growth
x
y=2
• y  number of copies of DNA
• X  number of cycles
VIDEO
• www.dnalc.org
• Click on “3-D Animation Library”
• Under “Experiments & Techniques”, click
“Polymerase Chain Reaction”
• (Third one on the top row)
1.
The first process in Polymerase Chain Reaction is to raise the
temperature to near boiling
2.
After this step the DNA denatures into single strands
3.
The temperature is decreased.
4.
Then the short DNA sequences known as primers bind, or
anneal, to complementary matches on the target DNA sequences
5.
As the temperature is slightly raised, Taq polymerase, an enzyme,
binds to primed sequences and adds nucleotides
6.
For additional cycles the process of denaturing, annealing and
extending are repeated to make additional DNA copies
• Colored Strips (DNA Strands)
• Paperclips (Primers)
• Calculator
• Graph Paper
• Ruler
Prudence B. Thrifty wants to
know…
If PCR using a single type of
primer can yield the same
amount of product as a normal
PCR with two primers.
Dear biology student at Dynamic High School,
You have been selected to be a consultant for my
FBI crime lab. I’ve heard of your molecular biology