Genetic Technology

Report
BELL RINGER 10-6-14
1.
How many chromosomes are contained in a human male gamete
cell?
a.
b.
c.
d.
2.
The genetic disorder trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is caused by
what genetic event?
a.
b.
c.
d.
3.
11
23
34
46
crossing-over
Nondisjunction
Base pair substitution
Frame-shift location
The gene for red/green colorblindness in humans is recessive and
primarily affects males. It must be located on
a.
b.
c.
d.
The X chromosome
The Y chromosome
Both the X and Y chromosome
Either the X or the Y chromosome
THIS WEEK…
Monday – Finish presentations if needed, Quiz over
Genetic Disorder Presentations, DNA Technology Notes
 Tuesday – DNA Technology Webquest in the computer
lab (521)
 Wednesday – GATTACA
 Thursday – Finish GATTACA if needed, Genetic
Technology articles
 Friday – ABC Book Self Evaluation (daily grade),
Introduction to Evolution and Organisms Unit – “Great
Transformations” video

STANDARD

SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits
are passed on to successive generations.

f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics,
medicine, and agriculture.
KEY IDEAS
What is genetic engineering?
 How is genetic technology used in agriculture,
medicine, and forensics?
 What concerns are there regarding genetic
engineering?

WHAT’S GENETIC ENGINEERING?

Genetic Engineering – the deliberate alteration of the
genetic material (DNA) of an organism
HOW IS IT DIFFERENT THAN SELECTIVE BREEDING?

Humans have been altering plants and animals for
1,000s of years through selective breeding.


Selective breeding - is the process by which
humans breed other animals and plants for particular
traits.
Genetic engineering involves changing the organisms
on the cellular level. For example, transferring genes
from one organism to another.
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD
RECOMBINANT DNA

Recombinant DNA – DNA molecules that are
artificially created by combining DNA from different
sources
TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS
Organisms whose genetic characteristics have been
altered using the techniques of genetic engineering.
 Examples




Plants modified to be disease or pest resistant
Manipulating genetics of lab animals to test on human diseases
Producing faster-growing livestock
GENE THERAPY
Gene therapy – an experimental technique that uses
genes to treat or prevent disease.
 Some forms of gene therapy:

Inserting a normal gene to replace an abnormal one
 Swapping an abnormal gene for a normal one
 Repairing an abnormal gene

GENE THERAPY
GENE THERAPY AND CYSTIC FIBROSIS
It has not been perfected yet. There are benefits and
risks.
 How does it work?

The defective gene is identified and is corrected with a normal
gene
 A vector is used to get the normal gene into the cells in the
lungs
 The healthy, normal gene inserts itself randomly in the DNA
of the individual with cystic fibrosis


This random insertion can be helpful as well as harmful
DNA FINGERPRINTING IN FORENSICS
DNA fingerprinting – a method
of isolating and making images
of sequences of DNA
 Can be used to solve crime and
determine paternity.
 Has its flaws

PROCESS OF DNA FINGERPRINTING

Step 1:


Step 2:


Cut the DNA into fragments
using restriction enzymes
Step 3:


Obtain a sample of DNA
(tissue, saliva, blood, hair, etc.)
Complete a gel electrophoresis
Step 4:

Analyze the results of
electrophoresis
DNA FINGERPRINTING
DNA FINGERPRINTING

Flaws

It’s only as good as the DNA
sample
Degraded samples
(overheated, frozen and
thawed repeatedly, old, etc)
 Small samples
 Samples collected postmortem


Identical twins (don’t they
have the same DNA?!)
USE OF GENETIC ENGINEERING IN AGRICULTURE
PROS
Disease and pest
resistant crops
 Higher yield crops
 Crops with a longer shelf
life
 Faster growing livestock
 Livestock with disease
resistance

CONS




Health concerns – is it safe to
consume modified organisms?
Possible effects on DNA of
humans who consume
genetically modified
organisms
What might happen if the
modified organisms escape
and mix with wild
populations.
Ethical implications of
manipulating genes in
animals.
VIDEOS
Salmon: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/harvest/
 Bananas:
http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/international/2
011/03/24/ef.genetic.modification.bk.a.cnn?iref=vi
deosearch


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