DNA

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Final exam review
Ecology
1. Put the levels of organization in order
from least inclusion (species) to most
inclusive.
~species, population, community,
ecosystem, biome, biosphere.
2. Algae and plants at the beginning of
food chains are called
~primary producers
3. How are herbivores and carnivores
alike?
~both obtain energy by consuming
other organisms
4. A model of the complex feeding
interactions among organisms in a
community from producers to
decomposers is called a
~food web
5. Only 10% of the energy stored in an
organism can be passed on to the next
tropic level. What happens to the other
90%?
~some is used for life processes and
the rest is eliminated as heat
6. The repeated movement of water
between Earth’s surface and the
atmosphere is called the
~the water cycle
7. Energy flows one way through the
ecosystem while nutrients are recycled
throughout the biosphere__ by way of
biogeochemical cycling.
8. An organism’s niche is
~ the range of physical and biological
conditions in which an organism lives and
the way it obtains what it needs to survive
and reproduce
9. Several species of warblers can live in
the same spruce tree ONLY because they
~occupy different niches within the
tree
10. Define herbivory.
~interaction in which an animal feeds
on plants
11. A certain species of bird eats fish.
What would happen to the fish
population if the bird population
decreases?
~the fish population would increase
12. A wolf pack hunts, kills and feeds on a
moose. The wolves are
~predators
13. A symbiotic relationship in which both
species benefit is
~mutualism
14. What is one difference between
primary and secondary succession?
~Secondary begins on soil while
primary begins on newly exposed surfaces
15. What factors play a role in population
growth rate?
~immigration, emigration, birth rate,
death rate
16. The movement of organisms into an
area or range is called
~immigration
17. What can be said of a population
whose death rate is becoming higher than
the birthrate?
~The population is decreasing in size
18. Figure 5-1 shows what type of growth
curve?
~exponential
19. As resources in a population become
less available, the population reaches
~carrying capacity
20. If a population grows larger than the
carrying capacity, what will most likely
happen?
~The death rate may rise
21. Demography is the study of
~human populations
DNA, RNA, Protein synthesis
22. Griffith called the process he observed
transformation because
~The harmless bacteria had been
transformed
23. What molecule stores information in a
cell?
~DNA
24. What happens when a piece of DNA is
missing?
~genetic information is lost
25. Figure 12-2 show the structure of
~A DNA molecule
26. Because of base pairing rules, what is
equal to what?
~Adenine = Thymine
Guanine = Cytosine
27. Which scientist(s) figured out that the
shape of a DNA molecule is a double helix?
~Watson and Crick
28. During DNA replication, a DNA strand
that has the bases CTAGGT produces a
strand with what bases?
~GATCCA
29. RNA contains the sugar
~ribose
30. Unlike DNA, which has thymine, RNA
contains
~uracil
31. Which type of RNA brings the information in
the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts
of the cell?
~mRNA
32. In Figure 13.3 which amino acid is
specified by the mRNA code CCC? GAG?
~ Pro, Glu
33. What happens during translation?
~The cell uses a messenger RNA to
make proteins
34. Genes (segments of DNA) contain
instructions for assembling
~proteins
35. A mutation that involves one or a few
nucleotides is called
~a point mutation
Genetics
36. How many chromosomes are shown in
a normal human karyotype?
~46
37. Why is colorblindness more common in
males than females?
~The allele is located on the X
chromosome (males XY so only get
one)
38. If a man with blood type A and a
woman with blood type B produce
offspring, what might be the offspring’s
blood type?
~A, B, AB, O
39. What can be used to cut DNA so it can
be studied?
~restriction enzymes
40. During gel electrophoresis what length
of DNA travels faster?
~Short
(100 base pairs would travel faster
than 1,000 base pairs)
41. Which enzyme(s) in figure 14-8 would
be best for cutting DNA to make fragments
with sticky ends?
~EcoR1 and Bam1
42. The Human Genome project is an
attempt to
~Sequence the DNA of every human
gene
43. What enzyme joins two pieces of DNA
together?
~DNA ligase
44. What does figure 15-1 represent?
~An enzyme being used to cut DNA
45. The process of making changes in the
DNA code of a living organism is called
~genetic engineering
46. A DNA molecule produced by
combining DNA from different sources is
known as
~recombinant DNA
47. To produce transgenic bacteria that
make insulin, what should be done first?
~Cut out the insulin gene from human
DNA
48. GM crops that produce a higher yield
per plant than unmodified crops would
~Produce more food for the same
acreage
49. The use of DNA fingerprinting relies on
the fact that
~no two people, except identical
twins, have exactly the same DNA
Evolution and classification
50. The species of finches that Charles
Darwin found on different Galapagos
Islands varied in certain structural
adaptations. What was the most
significant adaptation that Darwin noted?
~Bird’s different shaped beaks
51. The observation that finches of
different species on the Galapagos Islands
have many similar physical characteristics
supports the hypothesis that these finches
~descended from a common ancestor
52. Charles Darwin called the ability of an
organism to survive and reproduce in its
specific environment
~fitness
53. According to Darwin’s theory of natural
selection, the individuals that tend to
survive are those that have
~variations best suited to
environmental conditions
54. The number and location of bones of
many fossil vertebrates are similar to those
in living vertebrates. This is evidence in
support of
~common descent
55. In humans, the pelvis and femur, or
thighbone, are involved in walking. In
wales, the pelvis and femur shown in
Figure 16-1 are
~Vestigial structures
56. Molecular evidence in support of
natural selection includes
~ The nearly universal genetic code
57. The genes carried by all members of a
particular population make up the
population’s
~gene pool
58. Natural selections acts directly on
~phenotypes
59. A change in the genetic material of a
cell is called a
~mutation
60. An example of a single-gene trait is
~sickle cell anemia in humans
61. The frequency of phenotypes for a
typical polygenic trait is most often
illustrated as
~a bell shaped curve
62. One end of figures 17-1 shows an
increase in average beak size for a
population of birds. When individuals at
only one end of a bell curve of phenotype
frequencies have high fitness the result is
~directional selection
63. Figure 17-2 shows highest fitness
toward the center of the curve. When
individuals with an average form of a trait
have the highest fitness, the result is
~ stabilizing selection
64. One reason common names are not
useful to biologist is that they
~can apply to more than one animal
65. One goal of scientists is to assign every
organism a universally accepted name
according to the system known as
~binomial nomenclature
66. To be useful, a scientific name has to
refer to
~a single species
67. Based on their names, you know that
the baboon Papio annubis and Papio
cynocephalus do NOT belong to the same
~species
68. Systematics is
~the science of naming and grouping
organisms
69. What are the two highest level taxa in
the Linnaean system?
~phylum and kingdom
70. Similar DNA sequences in genes can be
evidence of
~common ancestry

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