Rebecca Grossman 7C1 ID4 Early Settlers Early settlers brought with them small amounts of extra food. Once they arrived in the new world they relied on what was around them to survive. They hunted for meat but needed to balance what they ate. Colonists learned by trial and error and they needed to change their eating habits to meet the resources of the new world. In the woods around them they were able to find many different kinds of berries which were rich in vitamins and fiber. Some examples of the berries they found were blueberries, blackberries, gooseberries, cranberries and raspberries. Settlers quickly learned which berries were good for cooking. Blackberries became a favorite for pies since they were sweeter and easy to dry. Sugar and other Sweeteners White sugar was grown in the south and was only available in a limited supply. Sugar was very expensive and was only available to buy in the general store. The settlers used it only for special occasions. Instead they used maple sugar which was free and found in the woods. Settlers learned about maple sugar from the Indians who taught them to tap the sugar from the maple trees, then to boil it down to syrup and sugar. Making Butter Making butter is a very interesting process. Fresh milk was put into a stone crock in a cool room and was left there for a day or two. It was during this time that the cream would rise to the top. The cream was skimmed (removed) and put into a churn. It was important that the churn and all the utensils being used were clean because the butter would absorb all the smells around it as was being made. The process of churning the butter would include rolling the stick between your fingers and pumping it up and down to set the cream. The butter is ready when small pieces are formed and start to float in the cream. The liquid that doesn’t form is called buttermilk. The buttermilk is strained from the butter which is washed over and over until the water runs clear. Once the process is complete the butter is salted and a drop of carrot juice was added for color. Cooking in Colonial Times In a colonial household all food took a long time to make. There were no stoves, refrigerators or running water in colonial times. Cooking was hot and tiring work. All the responsibility for cooking fell to the women and girls in the house. In wealthy homes it was a task often done by servants or slaves. The young girls in these families learned to cook so they could direct the work of the servants and slaves and manage their own households. Colonial Kitchens Colonial kitchens had very large fireplaces which took up the whole wall. The fireplace was so large that a person could stand up in it. At first fireplaces were made of logs and clay. Sometimes the logs would catch fire and the house would burn as well. Bread was often baked in a smaller oven in the wall next to the fireplace. The pan they used was called a bake kettle. A heavy brown bread was cooked by the steam from a stew which might have been cooking in the fireplace. Kitchen Layout The colonial kitchen was filled with storage chests and barrels. The wall had windows to keep the room cool and high ceilings. The kitchen had a brick or packed earth floor which was cleaned everyday. If people had slaves they often slept in the kitchen. You might find a loft area in the kitchen which would have been where the slaves slept. Wealthier families had a separate kitchen building. This would keep the heat and smells out of the house. Poorer families had the kitchen as part of the house and did their own cooking. Sweet Pies English colonists as well as the French, Dutch and Scandinavians brought their recipes for pie with them to the New World. Ingredients were very expensive and low in supply. Pies were one way to stretch these ingredients and make them last longer. Pies used less flour than breads. Pies could also be filled with ingredients the colonists had dried, such as apples and berries, which could be kept through the winter. Savory Pies Savory pies also played a role in the diets of the early Americans. One commonly made pie was the mincemeat pie. This pie often contained leftover meats, vegetables and fruits. Potato pies in both a sweet and savory form found a place in the colonial world. Cookies and Tea Cakes Cookies were brought to the colonies by immigrants from England, Scotland, and Holland. English teacakes and the Scotch shortbread were among those eaten by the colonists. In the south colonial housewives were very proud of their cookies which were often called tea cakes. These were simple cookies flavored with butter and sometimes had a few drops of rose water added for flavor. Johnnycakes Johnnycakes are a very simple recipe which is made from cornmeal, boiling water and a little salt. Like the popular pancake of today the batter should be thin. Johnnycakes are cooked on a hot griddle or pan. These cakes could be carried on long trips and cooked on the road and were sometimes also called journey cakes. The early settlers in New England learned how to make these cakes from the local Indians. In the early 1600’s when the early settlers were starving the Indians showed them how to grind corn and use it for cooking. Most of the flour they had brought with them on the journey from Europe had spoiled on the way to the New World. Typical Colonial Breakfast A typical colonial breakfast would include johnnycakes, bread, and breakfast puffs. In addition to these baked goods hasty pudding made from corn was often the main dish. It was cooked in a brass pot which was an important tool. To make hasty pudding the pot was filled with water an put over the fire to boil. Home ground cornmeal was thrown in and it was cooked as quickly as possible. Sometimes maple syrup, milk or butter were eaten with it. In order to increase the nutritional value and balance of the meal berries were often added into baked breads. Tea Cake Recipe Ingredients: 1 cup butter 2 cups sugar 2 large eggs 2/3 cup milk 2 teaspoons vanilla 4 cups flour Preparation: Cream butter and sugar until light and fluffy. Add eggs, milk, and vanilla; mix well. Stir in flour; refrigerate until chilled and easier to handle. Roll out on a floured board to 1/2-inch thick, adding more flour if necessary. Cut into shapes; place on a greased baking sheet. Bake at 350 degrees for about 10 minutes. Johnnycake Recipe 1 cup corn meal 1 Tbsp. sugar 1 tsp. salt 1 cup boiling water 3-4 Tbsp. milk Combine ingredients. Scald with boiling water. Cook 5-6 minutes on each side, or until crunchy. Hasty Pudding Recipe Serves 4 2 cups milk 2 cups light cream 3 tablespoons stone ground yellow cornmeal ½ cup brown sugar ½ cup maple syrup 1 tablespoon butter 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon ginger ½ teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg Pinch ground cloves 1/8 teaspoon baking soda 2 eggs, beaten In a heavy pan scald milk and cream. Gradually sprinkle with yellow cornmeal and bring to a boil, stirring briskly. Stir in sugar, maple syrup, butter and all the other dry ingredients. Let the mixture cool slightly. In a small bowl beat the eggs with the milk/cream mixture. Pour the batter into a buttered 1 ½ quart baking dish and bake in a moderately slow oven (325 degrees F) for 2 hours. Dictionary of Colonial Baked Goods Pandowdy is a deep-dish dessert that can be made with a variety of fruit, but is most commonly made with apples that are sweetened with molasses or brown sugar. The topping is a crumbly type of biscuit. Shoofly pie doesn't contain fruit, but, it will forever be linked to apple pandowdy after the old song. It is a traditional Pennsylvania Dutch dessert that is made with a filling of brown sugar, molasses and butter. Slumps, brambles and grunts are all old-fashioned New England desserts, usually made with berries and topped with a type of sweet dumpling mixture. They are all simple variations of cobblers. There are several regional variations of these same dishes. In the Boston area, slumps are made by dropping dumplings into simmering fruit, covering the pot and steaming the mixture on top of the range. In other parts of New England, brambles and grunts are baked with the dumplings on top so that they crisp up. In some parts of New England, a grunt isn't a type of cobbler at all; it is a steamed pudding with berries. Fool, which dates back to the 16th century, is a simple combination of fruit and cream or whipped cream. Sometimes the fruit is stewed, then folded into the whipped cream. Originally "fool" was a term of endearment, which might be how this dessert got its name. It has origins in England, where it was probably made with gooseberries. When it was made here, however, it was made with blueberries or blackberries. Buckle or crumple is a type of cake that is made in a single layer, with berries added to the batter--usually blueberries. The batter is quite thick, and as it bakes, it forms a thin bottom layer. The topping is similar to a streusel, which gives it a buckled or crumpled appearance. Cobbler is a deep-dish fruit dessert that is topped with a biscuit crust. Depending on the region, it might also be called a bramble, grunt or slump. It can be made with almost any type of fruit, including peaches, nectarines, plums and blackberries. Betty was a popular baked pudding made during Colonial times. It's made by layering spiced fruit with buttered bread crumbs. All sorts of fruit can be used, but apples are the most common. You might find it in recipe books listed as "Apple Brown Betty." Shortcake is a classic American dessert made with a rich biscuit. It's split in two and topped with fruit and whipped cream. Strawberries are traditional, but peaches and apricots are also quite tasty. Roly-poly is made by rolling fruit up in a type of pie pastry, wrapping it in cheesecloth and steaming it. Sailors made this dessert and often called it a duff. Crisps and crumbles are different from cobblers in that they are made with a shortbread crust rather than a biscuit. The fruit is cooked on the bottom with the crust on top. As it bakes, the top becomes crisp and crumbly. The difference between the two is simply regional. Crisps are the homey, American versions of the British crumbles. Crunch is similar to a crisp and a crumble, but in a crunch, there's a shortbread crust on the bottom as well as on the top. Plate Cake: Fruit is topped with rolled biscuit dough and baked. When done, the dessert is flipped, and the biscuit topping becomes the bottom crust. Grunt: Fruit topped with biscuit dough, covered, and baked so that biscuits steam rather than bake. Also called a slump. Bibliography Athan, Polly, Rebecca Sample Bernstein, Terri Braun and Jodi Evert. Felicity’s Cook Book. Middleton, WI: Pleasant Company Publications Incorporated, 1994. Penner, Lucille Recht. The Colonial Cookbook. Don Mills, ON: Saunders of Toronto, Ltd., 1976. Kalman, Bobbie. Food for the Settler. New York, NY: Crabtree Publishing Company, 1982. Erdosh, George. Food and Recipes of the Thirteen Colonies. New York, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 1997. “The History of Pie.” http://sliceoflifesunday.wrdpress.com/the-history-of-pie/ (January 2, 2011). “Fresh Blackberry Pie.” http://find.myrecipes.com/recipes/recipefinder.dyn?action=display Recipe&recipe_id=10000000458978 (January 2, 2011). “History of Cookies.” http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/Cookiehistory.htm (January 2, 2011). “Johnnycake History.” http://whatscookingamerica.net/Johnnycakes.htm (January 2, 2011). “Rhode Island.” http://boston.com/travel/explorene/rhodeisland/article/2006/ 08/06/ if_you_go_making_johnny_cakes/ (January 2, 2011). “Colonists Breakfasts.” http://oldrecipebook.com/colonialbreakfast.shtml (January 2, 2011). “Cobblers & More.” http://www.baking911.com/pies_tarts?cobblers.htm (January 2, 2011).