Simply Put: Words Prefixes Prefix Root Word Combining vowel Combining form Suffix Many if not most of these terms usually have Latin or Greek origins. The Latin form is used to describe or modify something, as in an adjective Ren/o means kidney and is used in the terms renal disease and renal tubule. The Greek form is used to describe a pathological finding. Nephr/o means kidney and is used in the terms nephritis and nephropathy. DIRECTIONAL PREFIXES CONTRASTING PREFIXES Epi Extra- upper, above outside Hyper- above,increase more than normal Hypo- below, under, decreased Infra- below, beneath Inter Intra Meta Per Sub- between within beyond through below, under, decreased Super- above, increased, more than normal Supra- above, increased more than normal across Trans Ultra- above, increased, more than normal ULTRA- SUPRASUPER- HYPER- EPI- INTER- INTRA- TRANS- INFRA- SUBHYPO- EXTRA- Transcontinental Extraterristrial Intercellular Epicenter Hypothermia Hyperactive Infrastructure Subzero Trans | continental Extra | terrestrial Inter | cellular Epi | center Hypo | thermia Hyper | active Infra | structure sub | zero Translocate Hypothyroid Hyperthyroid Supranatural Intranasal Superimposed Perennial trans | locate hypo | thyroid hyper | thyroid supra | natural intra | nasal super | imposed per | ennial (through the years-year after year) HYPO HYPER- INFRA SUB HYPO- Ab Ad Dys- away from toward ab|duction ad|duction Eu- difficult, painful, bad good, easy, normal dys|phagia eu|thyroid Endo- within or inside endo|parasite Ex- Exo Ecto- without, out of, outside, away from Poly Oligo- Pre- many, excessive scant, very little poly|uria olig|uria Post- before around after pre|operative peri|operative post|operative Anti- against anti|emetic (vomiting) A- without, no a|traumatic An- without, no an|uria Peri- Brady Tachy- slow fast Mal- bad Leuk- white Bi- twice, two, double Di- http://www.globalrph.com/medterm6b.htm My favorite go to website for medical prefixes, roots, suffixes A root is a word part that gives the essential meaning of the word Root words may need a combing vowel, usually an “o” which usually makes the word easier to pronounce “i” and “e’ may also be used The root word plus the combining vowel makes up the combining form Often written (and pronounced) Ren/o Gastr/o Cardi/o Rule 1: When the suffix or next word part begins with a consonant use a combining vowel Arthr/o and –scope = Arthroscope Rule 2: Don’t need a combining vowel if the suffix starts with a vowel Gastr/o and –itis = gastritis Rule 3: A combining vowel is used when two or more root words are joined together Gastr/o and enter/o and –it is = gastroenteritis Gastroenterits Nasolabial Colorectal Most medical root words or combining forms usually describe a part of the body Py/o Pneum/o- Derm/o Aden/o Bucc/o Cyt/o pus lungs, air skin gland cheek cell Cyst/o Nephr/o Ren/o- bladder kidney kidney My/o Arthr/o Chondr/o Axill/o Oste/o Cost/o muscle joint cartilage armpit bone ribs Cephal/o Encephal/o Cervic/o Crani/o Pod/o- head brain neck skull foot Thorac/o Cardi/o Ven/o Arteri/o Hem/a- chest heart vein artery blood Opth/o Ot/o Rhin/o Nas/o- eye ear nose nose Gastr/o Lapar/o Enter/o Col/o Hep/a Pancreat/o Splen/o- stomach abdominal wall intestine (small intestine) colon (large intestine) liver pancreas spleen Neur/o Myel/o- nerve spinal cord Or/o Stomat/o Gloss/o Labi/o mouth mouth tongue lips Xanth/o Zo/o Xanthinuria - ? yellow animal life Anatomy study of body structure Physiology study of body function Pathology study of the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions Etiology study of disease The suffix -logy means the study of. -plasia describes formation, development, and growth of tissue and cell numbers. -trophy describes formation, development, and increased size of tissue and cells. Neoplasia = any abnormal growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressive Tumor: a distinct mass of tissue formed from a neoplasm (-oma means tumor or neoplasm) benign: not recurring malignant: tending to spread and become life- threatening Prefixes used to describe tissue growth: a- = without hypo- = less than normal hyper- = more than normal dys- = bad ana- = without neo- = new Anaplasa: change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other Aplasa: lack of development of an organ or tissue or cell Dysplasia: abnormal growth or development of an organ or tissue or cell Hyperplasia: abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue or cell Hypoplasia: incomplete or less than normal development of an organ or tissue or cell Atrophy: decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ or tissue or cell Dystrophy: defective growth in the size of an organ or tissue or cell Hypertrophy: increase in size of an organ or tissue or cell • Aden/o means gland. – Exocrine glands secrete material into ducts. • Exo- means out; crine means to secrete. – Endocrine glands secrete chemicals into the bloodstream for transportation to organs and other structures throughout the body. • Endo- means within; crine means to secrete. An organ is a part of the body that performs a special function or functions. Each organ has its own combining form or forms. See Table 2–2. These combining forms usually have Latin or Greek origins. 1. The prefix___________means below. The prefix _________________means across. a) b) c) d) SupraSuperInterSub- a) b) c) d) MetaInfraTrans Ultra- 2. The prefix ___________means beyond. The prefix________________means between. a) b) c) d) HypoHyperMetaPer- a) b) c) d) InfraIntraInterEpi- The prefix _________means many. oligan- polyeu- The prefix ___________means outside, while the prefix ___________means inside. pre-, postendo-, exohyper-, hypointer-, intra- Which prefix means around? epiperi- suprameta- Which prefix means very little or scant? antioligo- perian- Anuria Polyuria Oliguria What is the prefix in each word above and what does each word mean? True or False? Cardio- means bladder Rhin0- means muscle Arthro- means joint Hepa-means liver Hema-means kidney Nephro- means liver Osteo- means bone Hepatic Lipidosis is a fatty ____________. Cardiomyopathy is a disease of the _____________. Nephrotoxixity is a poisonous effect on the _________.