Speech and Audiology for the Deaf Educator - DeafEd

Speech and Audiology
for the Deaf Educator
Nina Chacker
CEP 803C
April 23, 2010
Current Research
“Pediatricians' Knowledge of, Experience With, and
Comfort Levels for Cochlear Implants in Children”
Melody R. Mathews and Carole E. Johnson
From The American Journal of Audiology (December 2009)
This study assessed pediatricians’ knowledge and comfort levels
with cochlear implants. This is an important consideration for
families and professionals to consider when deciding whether or
not a child would benefit from use of an implant. Since a
physician’s input can make a big impact in this matter, it is
important for audiologists and teachers of the deaf and hard of
hearing to know where there knowledge tends to be lacking. This
will help them to have a better sense of what resources will be
most helpful to provide families of deaf and hard of hearing
children facing this decision.
“Classroom Acoustics: Understanding
Barriers to Learning”
Carl C. Crandell, Ed. and Joseph J. Smaldino, Ed.
From Volta Review (2001)
This source is a booklet which reports research related to creating a
classroom environment that is acoustically conducive to the speech
development of students who have a hearing loss. It examines the link
between classroom acoustics and how barriers can be removed in order
to aid in speech perception.
“Is It Time to Look Beyond Teachers’ Signing
C. Tane Akamatsu, David Alan Stewart and Connie Mayer
From Sign Language Studies (Spring 2002)
This article reflects on research concerning methods that
teachers have used to combine signing and speech in the
classroom over the past few decades. The article points out
that while philosophies and sentiments towards teaching
practices has shifted over the years, and the topic has been
researched extensively, the academic performance and
linguistic abilities of deaf students has not changed
significantly. This article explores why this is the case.
“Preschool Speech, Language Skills, and Reading at 7, 9,
and 10 Years: Etiology of the Relationship “
Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Nicole Harlaar, Philip S. Dale, Robert Plomin
From The Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research (April, 2010)
This research project assessed the speech and language abilities
of children at age 4 ½ and their reading levels when they
were 7, 9 and 10 years old. It also examined the genetic and
environmental factors that impacted both while analyzing a
potential connection between early speech and language use
and later reading skills.
The article reports a “mild stable relationship” between early
language and reading abilities. Genetic factors and the
environment that a child grows up in have the most
profound impact on language and reading while genetic
factors play the most prominent role in the relationship
between early speech and reading abilities.
“Early Intervention and Language Development in Children
Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing “
Mary Pat Moeller
From Pediatrics (February 2000)
Vocabulary and verbal reasoning skills were assessed in deaf and
hard of hearing children in order to determine if there is a
correlation between the age where intervention services
were initiated and their abilities in these areas.
The survey found that by age 5, the students who had been
receiving intervention services for the longest period of time
had the highest vocabulary and verbal reasoning scores—
REGARDLESS of their degree of hearing loss. In addition to
the age at which early intervention services were
implemented, the biggest determining factor in this outcome
was family involvement.
“Effects of Early Auditory Experience on the
Spoken Language of Deaf Children at 3
Years of Age”
Johanna Grant Nicholas and Ann E. Geers
From Ear and Hearing (June 2006)
This research examines the spoken language abilities of
profoundly deaf three-year-olds who have received early
intervention services during their most critical years of
linguistic development. The study found that children who
received early intervention services developed language
more successfully.
“The Role of Phonology and Phonologically
Related Skills in Reading Instruction for
Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing”
Ye Wang, Beverly J. Trezek, John L. Luckner and Peter V. Paul
From American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2008)
This study examines the role that phonics-based instruction can
play in teaching deaf students to read. As a result of their
investigation, the researchers concluded that Visual Phonics
and Cued Speech should be used in reading instruction for
students who are D/HH. They feel that more research should
be done about how to make use of these methods.
“Phonology and Reading: A Response to
Wang, Trezek, Luckner, and Paul”
Thomas E. Allen, M. Diane Clark, Alex del Giudice, Daniel Koo, Amy Lieberman,
Rachel Mayberry and Paul Miller
From American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2009)
A response to the article “The Role of Phonology and
Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students
Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing” that uses additional research to
address some of the same questions.
“Visual Phonics: An English Code Buster?”
Lynn M. Woolsey, Susan T. Satterfield and Len Robertson
From American Annals of the Deaf (Fall 2006)
This article examines the use of Visual Phonics as an instructional
strategy in order to develop phonemic awareness to support
speech and reading skills in children who are deaf.
While reading this piece, be aware that there is currently not very
much data to support the use of Visual Phonics in the classroom.
This article serves as a call to action for teachers of the deaf and
hard of hearing. While many potential benefits have been
identified, more research needs to be done in this area to
determine whether or not linking speech sounds to spellings can
be used as an effective literacy-building strategy. However, this
serves as good background information regarding what we do
already know about VP for educators who think it may be a useful
tool for their students.
“Auditory, Visual, and Auditory-Visual
Speech Perception by Individuals With
Cochlear Implants Versus Individuals With
Hearing Aids”
Tova Most, Hilla Rotham and Michael Luntz
From American Annals of the Deaf (Summer 2009)
This study compared the speech development of people who
are profoundly deaf who have cochlear implants to those who
use hearing aids.
Books in Print
Advances in the spoken language development of
deaf and hard-of-hearing children
edited by Patricia Elizabeth Spencer and Marc Marschark
This book focuses on the developments of speech
acquisition for individuals who are deaf or
hard of hearing in light of more recent
technological advances. This aspect of the field
has changed significantly since early
intervention services have become available
and assistive technology has advanced.
As a resource, this book appears to be more
objective than most. The authors cover a broad
range of factors that impact speech, including
manual approaches, cued speech, speech only
as well as hearing aids and cochlear implants.
Here's How to Do Therapy: Hands-On Core
Skills in Speech Language Pathology
Debra M.Dwight
Provides background about the core skills
required to do the work of a Speech-Language
Pathologist. Includes guided strategies of
effective techniques.
Comes with a DVD that presents these skills in
practice—a very useful tool, especially for
those who do not have a lot of experience
teaching speech production!
The New Language of Toys: Teaching
Communication Skills to Children With
Special Needs—A Guide for Parents and
Sue Schwartz and Joan E. Heller Miller
A guide to using hands-on activities
to promote speech and language
This book provides strategies for
working with children who have
special needs other than or in
addition to hearing loss.
Professional Issues in Speech-Language Pathology and
Rosemary Lubinski, Lee Ann C. Golper and Carol Frattali
This book includes an overview of
several issues related to the fields of
SLP and audiology, based on a threeyear study of these fields.
Each chapter is written by a related
Idea Advocacy for Children Who Are Deaf or
Hard-of-Hearing: A Question and Answer
Book for Parents and Professionals
Bonnie P. Tucker
1997 Edition: This book provides answers to
questions related to special education law. It is
useful for parents, educators, and any other
advocates for the deaf and hard of hearing who
may be overwhelmed when trying to maneuver the
vast document itself!
Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to Use Spoken
Language: A Guide for Educators and Families
Susan Easterbrooks and Ellen L. Estes
This book provides techniques for teaching
speech and language development to young
children. The authors feel that children who are
deaf or hard of hearing are less likely to be
isolated from others if they can use spoken
language. Their approach focuses on a
“conceptual framework” and sets objectives that
encourage children to practice using spoken
language in practical contexts.
Children With Hearing Loss: Developing Listening
and Talking Birth to Six
Elizabeth B. Cole and Carol A. Flexer
This is primarily a professional resource,
which begins by providing background
about audition and diagnosis of issues
children from birth to age six who have
a hearing loss may experience with
their speech.
It goes on to provide specific intervention
strategies to help children develop their
“listening and talking” skills.
It also stresses the importance of parent
involvement and practice in natural
settings. An appendix of helpful tools is
included at the end.
Working with Families in SpeechLanguage Pathology
Nicole Watts Pappas and Sharynne McLeod
Because family involvement is a
critical component of speech and
language development, this book
links the work that can be done in
the classroom with support that can
be given in the home.
This book details evidence which
proves how much more effective
speech and language instruction can
be when families are part of the
process. It also includes tips for
incorporating families in speech
Need to Know
By Jill L. Bader, M.A., with Allison Biever, Au.D., CCC-A, and Aziza Hydari Tyabji
This book provides an indepth training guides for
professionals who are
working to help students with
cochlear implants develop
Language & Literacy Development in
Children Who Are Deaf
Barbara R. Schirmer
This book provides models and strategies for
teaching deaf students language in the
classroom. It addresses the way that
children who are deaf or hard of hearing
use language to communicate, read and
This text is especially useful for teachers
because it targets methods of creating a
classroom environment that promotes
language and literacy.
VOICE for Hearing Impaired Children
The contributors of VOICE believe that listening and speaking are
rights, and that children who are deaf or hard of hearing deserve
access to tools that will allow them to develop these skills.
The website includes sections that focus on parent support,
education, advocacy, Auditory-Verbal Therapy, professional input
and a long list of resources. Teenagers who are VOICE members
can participate in web chats, and young people can share their
Audiology Online
This web resource primarily targets audiologists, but it includes
valuable information and research about amplification devices
that are widely used to support speech development for
students who are deaf or hard of hearing.
The site has up-to-date information from the field in their
“news” section where contributors share recent articles and
research findings.
The Hearing Loss Association of America
This advocacy site provides information about communication
access, research and instruction. This could be accessed by
professionals who want additional resources related to
hearing loss and audiology. It also provides background
material, such as a glossary and explanations of different
amplification devices that may help families make decisions
regarding the communication modes they choose to pursue
with their children. It sets a tone of support and acceptance,
regardless of hearing loss in order to provide clarity about
topics that may initially overwhelm people with hearing loss
and their families.
Audiology Net
This site compiles excellent resources about topics that are
central to audiology and speech, including different types and
causes of hearing loss, audiological tests, the role of
audiologists and amplification equipment.
All of this information is relevant to anyone involved with
speech and audiology because it is best to understand a
hearing loss before deciding how to respond to it.
Educational Audiology Association
The EAA is an organization of professionals who provide children
with services related to hearing, especially in education settings.
Of particular interest is the “School-based Audiology Advocacy
Series” which includes information about effective techniques to
use in the classroom.
Alexander Graham Bell Association for
the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
The AG Bell Association provides an abundance of resources for
individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. The “Hearing
Loss at School” section provides comprehensive information
about what services students who are D/HH have a right to.
This is important for families to know about so that they can
be effective advocates for their children.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
A resource which provides information for people with speech,
language and/or hearing differences. They supply a wide
range of advocacy resources.
Special Needs Ontario Window
This site compiles resources for educators, including a section
of “Special Education Resources,” which provides more
specific information about different special needs and tips for
addressing them.
Michigan Association of the Deaf and
Hard of Hearing
MADHH is an advocacy group for the deaf and hard of hearing.
The website includes an extensive list of related websites that
connect people to organizations of and/or for the D/HH in
Michigan as well as national sites.
Oral Deaf Education
This website describes potential benefits of a family-centered
oral approach. They stress early intervention, highlighting
many success stories.
You can order many useful materials for free.You can also
watch videos of children who share their success stories.
Educator Tools
Sounds of Spoken English: English
Speech Instruction
Wallace House
A collection of audio recordings that
provide instruction on speech sounds. It
targets issues that arise with enunciation.
The Itinerant Connection
This website provides resources for teacher consultants.
They cover different aspects of audiology and methods for
supporting students in their classroom environment.
Assessment Tools for Students Who
Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
This website provides a list of assessment tools. They are clearly
broken down into categories and the list includes tools that can
be used effectively to assess the cognitive and linguistic abilities of
children who are deaf and hard of hearing.
Each resource entry includes:
•The name and acronym of the assessment
•The author
•A brief description of the setting the test should be given in
•The skills that the resource assesses
•The age range that the test is appropriate for
Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education
Laurent Clerc is an organization established through Gallaudet
University. The site links to Kendall Demonstration
Elementary School and Model Secondary School for the
Deaf. Both are focused on providing quality education for
D/HH students, and they provide lists of resources that can
be used by any deaf educators.
Ethical Practices in Speech-Language Pathology
and Audiology : Case Studies
Mary Pannbacker, Grace F. Middleton, Gay T. Vekovius
This book presents case studies about
students who are receiving speech
services. It discusses issues of ethics
in instruction related to each.
Speech Correction: An Introduction to
Speech Pathology and Audiology
Charles Van Riper, Robert L. Erickson
This book provides good background
information for professionals who are going
to be working with students on speech
development. It uses a person-centered
approach when offering clinician-based
National Deaf Education Project
This website aims to determine how to provide the best
possible education for students who are deaf or hard of
hearing. The contributors want to see legislation passed to
ensure that students who are D/HH have their language and
communication abilities assessed yearly, that there is always
ongoing development in these areas, and that teachers will
provide access in the mode, language or signing system that
benefits each student.
Cued speech and cued language for deaf
and hard of hearing children
Carol LaSasso, Kelly Lamar Crain, and Jacqueline Leybaert
This is an extensive volume of applications
for the role that cued speech can play in a
deaf or hard of hearing child’s development
of language, reading and academic
It compiles the research of professionals
from nine related fields that describe how
the use of cued speech has changed over
time and how it can be best put to use to aid
students with hearing loss now.
“Educating Children Who Are Deaf or Hard
of Hearing : Cued Speech”
Barbara Caldwell
From ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education
This article provides information about Cued Speech for
educators who are interested in applying this approach in
their classrooms. It follows a question and answer format to
describe the way that this method can be used as a
supplement to speechreading.
Speaking Volumes Effective Intervention for
Children Who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
This is a Powerpoint presentation that professionals can use to
educate their peers about speech instruction and audiology.
Slides can be omitted in order to tailor the presentation to
the audience.
Parent-Friendly Resources
The Public School Parents’ Network
This website provides a list of signs that a child might have a
speech/language disorder
Its central focus is on advocacy resources for parents of students
who are eligible for speech services at school. It explains who
families can turn to for help in their children’s schools, and
gives answers and suggestions to issues that may arise for
them in the public school setting.
“Options in Deaf Education—History,
Methodologies, and Strategies for Surviving
the System”
By Cheryl Zapien
From Exceptional Parent Magazine (1998)
This resource provides information about a variety of potential
educational settings for deaf and hard of hearing students.
The author explains the manual vs. oral controversy, along
with the medical vs. cultural view of deafness. She points out
some factors that should be considered while discussing
different education options for children and gives a rundown
on several prominent approaches that are used in classrooms.
“Auditory-Oral Education: Teaching Deaf
Children To Talk”
Jean Sachar Moog
From Audiology Online (May 2000)
The director of the Moog Center outlines what she things are
critical components and outcomes of an auditory-oral
approach to the education of children who are deaf and hard
of hearing. This article may give families additional insight as
to whether or not A-O is an appropriate placement option
for their student.
“Speech Club Helps Students, School,
and Community”
By Cindy Herold
This article is a useful parent resource because it provides an
example of how a deaf or hard of hearing student’s in-class speech
lessons can be effectively supported outside of the classroom. In
order for D/HH students to successfully develop speech,
professionals should encourage parents to remain involved by
practicing strategies at home, and finding opportunities such as
this one for their students to use their speech.
Does My Child Have a Speech
Katherine L. Martin
This book was written in response
to the 50 most common questions
about children’s speech.
Through the answers to these
questions, the book covers the issues
•Stuttering and fluency
•Listening and auditory
processing skills
•Issues of the voice
Choices in Deafness: A Parents’ Guide to
Communication Options
By Sue Schwartz
This book essentially provides parents with
an overview of the education settings that
are available to their child.
These include:
•Cued Speech
•Oral Approach
•Total Communication
My Baby’s Hearing
This site is geared towards the parents of children who have
been referred for a second hearing screening. It details what
their first steps should be and options they can explore after
their child has officially been diagnosed with a hearing loss. They
focus on the areas of Hearing and Amplification, Language and
Learning and Parent to Parent.
The website is easy to maneuver and clearly lays out a variety of
resources under subcategories of each central topic.
Kids Health
This website informs parents who are concerned that their
child may have special needs that affect their speech
development. It gives background on typical speech
development, causes of extra speech needs, speech-language
therapy and steps to take action.
Speech-Language Development
This is an advocacy website that is run by a speech-language
pathologist. It was created to help answer parents’ questions
and respond to their concerns in a friendly but informative
National Challenged Homeschoolers
Association Network
This website is designed for parents who choose to homeschool
their children. However, it provides home-based speech and
language therapy exercises that can be used by any families
who want to help their children develop speaking and
listening skills themselves.

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