Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders new

Report
 Behaviors
patterns or mental process
that cause serious personal suffering
or interfere with a person’s ability
to cope with everyday life.
 1/3 of all adults have experienced
some type of psychological disorder.
What
is average for most
people?
 Laughing/ too much at
nothing.
 The
behavior of the majority is not
always wise or healthy
 Some Atypical behaviors are
eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather
than indicative of a disorder
 People with psych disorders usually
do not differ much from “normal”
people
Typically
what is most common
not a good guide
impairs
an individual’s ability to
function in everyday life.
hazardous to oneself or others
alcohol and drug use
 anxiety
and depression
 feelings of hopelessness, extreme
sadness, worthlessness,
 Guilt, thought of suicide
 severe emotional discomfort
violates
society’s accepted
norms
cultural differences a
problem
 Change
with each edition of the DSM or
diagnostic and statistical manual of
mental disorders
 The 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological
disorders have been categorized on the
basis of observable signs and symptoms
rather than presumed causes.
1.
2.
3.
Identify three problems with defining
normal behaviors as the behavior displayed
by the majority of people.
How have the criteria for the
classisification of psychological disorders
been arranged since 1980’s?
Give an example of a feeling or a behavior
that would be considered normal in one
circumstance but a sign of psychological
disorder in a different circumstance.
Anxiety Disorders
A
state of dread or uneasiness in
response to a vague/ imagined
danger
by
Persistent,
 excessive,
irrational fear,
 nervousness,
concern for lost of control,
 inability to relax
 trembling,
sweating,
 rapid heart rate,
 shortness of breath,
 increase blood pressure,
 flushed face,
 feeling of faintness/ light head

 Persistent,
excessive, irrational fear,
of a object or situation
Most common Types
 zoophobia—fear of animals
 claustrophobia—enclosed spaces
 acrophobia---heights
 arachnophobia---spiders
 Panic
Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of
phobic individuals)
 Panic attack (recurring and unexpected)
a short period of intense fear (1 min – few
hours)
 shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart
rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling,
shaking,
 going to die for no apparent reason

fear of being in
places/ situations in
which Impossible to
escape

have panic attack
by avoiding
behaviors

Agoraphobia
(common among
adults)
excessive or unrealistic
worry about life
circumstances that lasts
for at least 6 months
 common anxiety
disorder
 typically focus on
finances, work,
interpersonal problems,
accidents or illness

Generalized
anxiety disorder
Obsessions -unwanted thoughts
ideas or mental
images.
 Compulsions---repetitive ritual
behaviors
 cleaner, checkers,
washers, Hoarders,
repeaters, orderers.

ObsessiveCompulsive
disorder (OCD)
 flash
back, nightmares, numbness of
 feelings, avoidance increased tension
 causes- rape, severe child abuse, assault,
serve accident, airplane crash, natural
disasters, war experiences
Psychoanalytic view
•Anxiety is the result of forbidden
childhood urges that have been
repressed.
•When surfaced may become
obsessions and compulsive behaviors
Learning view
 Phobias
are
conditioned or
learned in
childhood
 May occur from
traumatic events
Cognitive
 People
make
themselves feel
anxious by
responding
negatively to most
situations
 Feel helpless to
control what
happens to them
Biological
views
 Heredity
plays a role in most
psychological disorders
Interaction

factors-
both bio and psych together
1.
2.
3.
How does anxiety differ from fear?
Describe the relationship between
panic disorder and agoraphobia.
Explain why studies of twins are
important for determining whether
a disorder has a biological basis.
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
 REFERS
TO THE SEPARATION OF CERTAIN
PERSONILITY COMPPONENTS OR MENTAL
PROCESSES FORM CONSCIOUS THOUGHT.
 MAY LOSE THEIR MEMORY OF A PARTICULAR
EVENT OR FORGET THEIR IDENTITY
 OCCURS WHEN FACED WITH URGES OR
EXPERIENCES THAT VERY STRESSFUL
 Characterized
by sudden lost of memory
following a stressful or traumatic event
 Typically can’t remember any events that
occurred for a certain period of time
surrounding the traumatic event
 May forget all prior experiences, personal
information, own name, family and friends
 May last a few hours or years
 No biologically explanation.
 Characterized
by forgetting personal
information and past events
 Taking on a new identity relocating from
home and new career
 Usually follows a traumatic event
 When fugue ends will not remember anything
during the fugue state
 Formerly
called multiple personality disorder
 Existence of 2 or more personalities
 Personalities may or may not be aware of
each other
 Personality: different (age, sex, health)
 Typically have suffered severe physical,
sexual, and/or psychological abuse.
 Feeling
of detachment from one’s mental
processes or body.
 Feeling outside of your body/ observing
yourself
 Common with other disorders
 Stressful event
 Dissociate
in order to prepress unacceptable
urges



Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the
disturbing urges
Dissociative identity –develops- new
personalities to take responsibility
Depersonalization-goes outside of self away from
the turmoil within
 Have
learned not to think about disturbing
events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and
pain
 Dissociate themselves from stressful event
 Reinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma
is forgotten
 No
complete
explanation as of
yet
 At
present there is
no convincing
evidence that
either biological or
genetic factors
play a role
1.Describe the four dissociative disorders.
2. In some cultures people are encouraged to
go into trance like states. Should this type of
dissociation be considered a sign of a
psychological disorder? Why or why not?
Somatoform Disorders
 Expression
of psychological distress through
physical symptoms
 Psychological problem along with physical
(paralysis)
 The
conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in
order to avoid work, school, or other
responsibilities
 People with somatoform disorders do not
fake their illness.
 Honestly feel pain and paralysis
2 most common
Conversion disorder and
Hypochondria
 Experience
change in or loss of physical
functioning in a major part of the body
 No known medical explanation
 Patient show little or no concern about their
symptoms.
 Person’s
unrealistic preoccupation with
thoughts of illness or disease.
 Maintains their erroneous belief despite
medical doctor
Psychological view
 Primarily psychological
 Repressing emotions associated with
forbidden urges/ expressed in physical
symptoms
 Compromise unconscious need to express
feelings and fear of expressing them
 Indications
that biological and genetic
factors involved.
1.
2.
3.
Define malingering. How does somatization
differ from malingering?
How do conversion disorder and
hypochondriasis differ?
How do you think learning theorists might
explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree
with this type of explanation? Why or Why
not?
 Everyone
experience life's ups/downs
 Some people experience mood changes that
seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with
the situation to which they are responding.
 Life is good= sadness
 Elated for no apparent reason
 Abnormal moods like these, you may have a
mood disorder.
 Depression

Feeling of
helplessness,
hopelessness,
worthlessness,
guilt, and great
sadness
 Bipolar


disorder
Cycles of mood
changes
Depression----wild
elation
7 types of mood disorders
divided into
Depressive
and
bipolar disorders
 Must
experience at least 5 of the following 9
symptoms for 2 wks/every day









Depressed mood for most of the day
Loss of interest pleasure in all things
Weight loss/ gain
Sleep more / less
Change in physical and emotional reactions
Fatigue/ loss of energy
Feeling worthless/ guilty
Inability to concentrate/ make decisions
Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
 Consumed
by feelings of worthlessness of
guilt
 Calls for immediate treatment

15% or more eventually commit suicide.
 Dramatic
ups and downs in mood
 Period of mania or extreme excitement

Hyperactivity and chaotic behavior
change to Depression very quickly no
apparent reason
 Traits






Inflated self-esteem
Inability to sit still
Pressure to keep talking and switching from topic
to topic
Racing thoughts
Difficulty concentrating
Highly excited
 Act silly
 Argumentative
 Delusions about their
superior abilities
 Others jealous of
them

Hallucination hearing
imaginary voices
 Seeing things that are
not there
 Impulsive behaviors




Quitting their jobs to
pursue wild dreams
Spending sprees
Foolish business
investments
 Psychological

Internalizes anger- directs to themselves
 Biological


View
Learned helplessness
 Cognitive

view
Has a genetic basis( chemical imbalance)
25 % have family members who have moods
disorders
 Learning

View
View
Habitual style of explaining life events based on
prior experiences
1.
2.
3.
What is the difference between depression
and bipolar disorder?
List five symptoms of major depression.
Describe and explain self-esteem, selfefficacy and expectancy from the
perspective of attribution theory.
 Considered
the most serious
 Typically Appears in young adulthood
 May occur suddenly
 Characterized by

- loss of contact with reality
 Linked
to geneitcs
 No cure
 There is effective treatment
 Hallucinations
 Delusions
 Thought
disorders
 Auditory (voices)
 delusions of grandeur (superior to others)
 Persecution (paranoid)
 Speech( disorganized confused)
 Social withdraw
 Loss of social skills
 Loss of normal emotional responsiveness
 Paranoid


Delusion of auditory hallucinations/ single theme
Grandeur-Jealousy- persecution-CIA after them
 Disorganized

Incoherent in their thought/ speech/delusions/
hallucinations/emotionless/ inappropriate
emotions
 Catatonic

Disturbance of movement/ slow/ stupor
switching to agitation/ holds body positions
 Psychological


Overwhelming of the Ego by urges from the ID
Conflict fantasies confused with reality
 Biological


View
View
A brains disorder/ frontal lobe
Bio risks- heredity complications during
pregnancy and birth
 Multi-factorial




model of schizophrenia
Biological and psychological factors interact
Genetics create a vulnerability + trauma could =
schizophrenia
Once developed family environment can
negatively affect the disorder
Environmental factors alone does not lead to
schizophrenia.
1.
2.
3.
List four symptoms of schizophrenia.
How does paranoid schizophrenia differ
from disorganized schizophrenia?
Explain why a multi-factorial model of
schizophrenia may help in explaining the
disorder?
 Patterns
of inflexible traits that disrupt
social life and work/ distress the person
 Late in adolescence/ affect thought process,
emotions and behavior
 Are enduring traits that are major
components of the individual’s personality
 1-10% of the population (Antisocial
personality disorder)
 Paranoid


Distrustful-suspicious of others
Difficult- argumentative, cold, aloof, view of
reality is distorted (isolated life)
 Schizoid




personality disorder
personality disorder
No interest in relationship with people
Lack normal emotional responsiveness
No relationships-loners, few friends
Do not have delusion or hallucinations
 Antisocial




Persistent behavior pattern of disregard/
violation of the right of other people
Do not feel guilt or remorse
Childhood---Hurt people and animals-steal
Adulthood—recklessness, no job, breaks the law
 Avoidant




personality disorder
personality disorder
Want relationships/ fear and disapproval stops
them
Shy, withdrawn,
Always have social problems/ phobias
All encompassing condition
 Psychological
view
 Lack of guilt/ failure of developing a
conscious or super ego
 Harsh punishment/ environment =lack
of sense of guilt
 experiences influence learning how to
relate to people
 No role models/ aggressive role models
 Genetic\
runs in families
 Frontal part of the brain/emotions
Fewer neurons than other people
 Less responsive
 Less likely to show guilt for their
misdeeds
 Less likely to fear punishment

1.What is the major difference between
personality disorders and other psychological
disorders they may resemble?
2. Describe three behaviors of an individual
with avoidant personality disorder.
3. Why do you think people with antisocial
personality disorder are often more difficult
to treat than people with other ypes of
personality disorders?
PAGE 432 Thinking critically (1-5)
PAGE 433 Interpreting graphs (1+2)
Analyzing primary sources (3+4)

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