The Agricultural Revolution
New farming Techniques
Throughout the early 1700s new technologies helped improve farming and
increased food production
Iron Plow Seed Drill
Iron Plow
The wooden plow was
useful in the sandy
Mediterranean soil where
it was invented, but did
not work well in the
dense wet soil of Europe.
The Iron plow was heavy
and strong enough to
easily break Europe’s soil.
Jethro Tull created a seed drill
to plant seeds in straight
lines. These crops could be
weeded easily.
Instead of leaving fields
fallow, Townshend urged
farmers to plant turnips,
which restored exhausted
Population Explosion
More food=bigger population
Estimated population statistics:
Britain in 1700: 5 million
Almost Double!!
Britain in 1800: 9 million
What other time period does this
population increase remind you of?
Neolithic Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
Revolution = CHANGE
Industrial Revolution
• The Industrial Revolution is the name given to
the massive social, economic and
technological change in 18th and 19th century
Great Britain. It commenced with the
introduction of steam power, fueled primarily
by coal.
Industrial Change
The Industrial revolution refers to the shift from simple hand
tools to complex machines AND from human & animal power to
steam power.
People live and work in small
farming villages
People move from farming villages
to new city centers based on
industry- urbanization
Cities become overcrowded
with working families
Causes of Industrialization
1. Availability of natural resources
for fuel (coal)
2. Capital (money surplus to invest)
3. Technological inventions and energy
Capital (money for investing) allowed for new
Steam Engine- powered machines without needing to
be next to a moving water source. Heats
water by burning coal.
Spinning Jenny- Quickly produces thread.
Transportation Systems
Inventions allowed for the production of large quantities of
product but transportation was slow.
Turnpikes- private roads that charged $$ to transport on. Example I-90
Steamships- ships powered with steam could move faster and reliably without
Railroads- steam powered locomotives could carry large loads quickly across vast
distances. The first major line laid in 1830. Within 40 years lines crossed
Europe and America.
Effects of Industrialization
2)Loss of Traditional way of Life
3)New Economic Systems
1. Urbanization
Movement of people to cities to find work.
What do you already know
about the conditions in these
factories and cities?
Child Labor
Dark, unsafe factories
Long hours and little pay
Poor living conditions
Origin of textile factory workers
• Cotton was sent to farm families
Before who would spin cotton into cloth.
• Cloth was sent to artisans to dye
middle and weave
• Dyed cloth was sent to small
factories to weave
What is wrong with this process?
Too slow and too expensive. Only small quantities could be produced
keeping cost high
Origin of Textile Factory Workers
New inventions were bought by rich capitalists. The machines turned
out cheaper and better products than the farm workers.
Thus the workers become disposable.
2. Loss of Traditional Way of life
The customs and traditions of the farms
and past are replaced by the “new” city
ways. Traditional ways are blended or
lost as a result
Which condition is most necessary to the process of
industrialization in a society
Dependence on subsistence agriculture
Creation of a one-crop economy
Availability of investment capital
Capture of foreign lands
Before a nation can begin to industrialize, that
nation must first develop
A democratic government
A rigid class structure
A strong religious foundation
An adequate food supply
-Europeans sought new markets for their goods.
-Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs.
-European middle class gained political power.
What was the major cause of these changes in Europe?
1. Industrial Revolution
2. rise of feudalism
3. Congress of Vienna
4. French Revolution
3. New Economic Systems
Shift from a traditional economic system based on bartering and trade
to mostly money based exchanges.
 Wealthy people (entrepreneurs) and companies will
invest money, capital, into factories
 Entrepreneurs believed they would make money off of
the growing demand.
 The idea is it takes money to make money
In a Capitalist society the factories are owned by private investors
who’s goal is to make money.
Adam Smith believed in Laissez Faire
economics based on supply and
demand. If the demand is high and
the investors are making money,
they will make more supply.
Capitalist Cycle
prices fuel
prices fall
Investors buy
machines to
produce large
Some believed that the goal of society was “the greatest
happiness for the greatest number” of citizens.
Utopians want to achieve this by creating communities where
everything is shared and everyone works together to produce
necessary items, food, supplies, etc.
Form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx;
according to Marx, class struggle was
inevitable and would lead to the creation of a
classless society in which all wealth and
property would be owned by the community
as a whole.
What you need to know:
a communist society has no class structure
because everyone is equal and all property is
Karl Marx
 Known as the father of communism
 Teamed up with Friedrich Engels to write, “The Communist
 Marx believes that history is just a history of class struggles:
between the “haves” and “have-nots”
Haves and Have-nots
Bourgeoisie: they own the
means of production and
control society
Proletariat: they own
nothing and work for the
The Entrepreneurs and
The proletariats will
struggle against the bosses
The bosses
Bourgeoisie= Boss
You tell me:
Who are the Bourgeoisie?
Proletariat= Workers
You tell me:
Who are the Proletariat?
Which revolution inspired Karl Marx and
Friedrich Engels to express their ideas in The
Communist Manifesto?
According to the theories of Karl Marx, history can be
viewed as a
1. succession of famines that result in the destruction
of civilizations
2. repeating cycle of imperialism and colonialism
3. listing of the accomplishments of the ruling classes
4. continuous struggle between economic classes
A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the
1. concentration of workers in urban areas
2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its
3. formation of powerful craft guilds
4. control of agricultural production by
Stages of Communism
According to Marx, history has been the story of the struggle between the
workers and bosses.
1) Capital
2) Factories are built
3) Factories need workers
4) Conflict
5) Communism
#1 Capital
Remember one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution is capital, or
surplus money used for investment.
#2 Build Factories
#3 Factories need Workers
#4 Conflict
Proletariat vs. Bourgeoisie
#5 Communist Revolution
The proletariat will rise above the bourgeoisie and set up a
communist society: class less and shared property.
Karl Marx: Father of Communism
Communist Nations in History
• USSR (Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics)
• China
• North Korea
• Vietnam
• Cuba
What does this video say about
Some saw the new industrialization as a negative for society.
Thomas Malthus believed the growing population would outgrow the food supply.
“Poverty and misery are unavoidable
because population is increasing faster
then the food supply”
David Ricardo felt there was no hope for the working class to escape poverty unless
they limit their family sizes. He created the Iron Law of Wages.
Iron Law of Wages
High wages to appeal to the few available
Families have more children
Wages start to fall because kids are working.
Increasing the labor force
“The proletarians have nothing to lose but their
chains…Workers of the world, unite!”
This statement was made in response to conditions
resulting from the
1. Protestant Reformation
2. Counter-Reformation
3. Commercial Revolution
4. Industrial Revolution
“Revolution will occur more and more frequently in the
industrialized nations as the proletariat struggles to
overcome the abuses of the capitalist system.”
This quotation reflects the ideas of
1. Charles Darwin
2. Karl Marx
3. Niccolo Machiavelli
4. John Locke
According to Karl Marx, history is the record of the
1. granting of more political liberties to all people
2. struggle between classes in society
3. wars and conflicts between national leaders
4. increasing prosperity brought about by industrialization
A main idea of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles’ Communist
Manifesto is that the proletariat
1. would need foreign help to achieve its revolutionary ends
2. had to cooperate with the capitalists to gain economic
3. should allow the capitalists to control the means of
4. must unite to overthrow the capitalist class
A major result of the Industrial Revolution was the
1. concentration of workers in urban areas
2. increased desire of the wealthy class to share its power
3. formation of powerful craft guilds
4. control of agricultural production by governments

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