Pests, Plagues & Politics Lecture 5 Insect Products Silk - Lac – Paper & Ink Key Points Silk - Lac - Paper & Ink • Sericulture by moths – What species of insect? – What is the process? • Lac by scale insects – What is it? “Who” makes it? • Paper & Ink by wasps adult The Polyphemus moth of the Giant Silkworm moth family pupa larva SILKWORM MOTHS • Order LEPIDOPTERA (scale wing) – Family: Bombycidae – Few species are native to the U.S. – The “commercialized” silkworm moth is •Bombyx mori [a native of Asia] • The propagation of silkworm moths & their host plants is termed – SERICULTURE SERICULTURE • Chinese in origin – ca. 4,000 BP • To Japan ca. 2,100 BP • To Europe ca. 1,500 BP – via Constantinople (Istanbul) by Christian monks • To the U.S. with the early colonists – and a failure. The Process Starts with adult moths Female moth lays eggs on paper Early instar moth larvae feeding on mulberry leaves Mature moth larvae just about done eating Mature larvae spin cocoons Filature of cocoons The end product LAC - a resin usually produced in thin flaky layers, or shells and used in making varnish, phonographic records, insulating materials, et al.” “Lac” comes from insects… Lac Insects • The word “LAC” derives from the Sanskrit word “laksah”, similar to the Hindi word “lakh” which means: – one hundred thousand • Order HOMOPTERA (same or equal wing) – family COCCIDAE - the Scale Insects – 2,000 species worldwide – phytophagous life style (“sap tappers”) Scales of Economic Importance • The LAC scale – Laccifer lacca • The Cactus Scale – from which we get Cochineal dye – Coccus cacti (Gr. = “berry”) • The Kermes scale – from which we get Kermes dye – Coccus ilicis Cochineal from the cactus scale • Sessile, soft-bodied plant feeder. • Lives and feeds on Opuntia cactus. Insect and Opuntia are native to S. America and Mexico. • Large, wingless females and smaller winged males. • Produce carminic acid as a defense mechanism. Cochineal Extract and Carmine • • • • Origins: Maya and Aztec Carminic acid extracted from the body/eggs of females. Cochineal extract—raw coloring made from crushed insects. Carmine—purified coloring made by boiling the crushed insects with solvents. • Colors food, makeup, cloth, wool, paint and ink. Cochineal Economics • 155,000 cochineal insects to make a kg of cochineal dye. • Today, Peru, Canary Islands, Chile, and Mexico produce cochineal dye. • France, Japan, and Italy are the largest importers. • Market price 2005: between 50 and 80 USD per kg. – Increased significantly since then The Insect Paper “Makers” • The Paper Wasps – Order HYMENOPTERA (membrane wing) – family Vespidae • the social paper wasps = yellow jackets & hornets – Wasp derived from the Anglo-Saxon word Waesp which means “to weave” – The paper wasps have been inhabiting earth for about 70,000,000 years. The paper Nest FYI A Short History of Paper • Believed to be Chinese in origin – 1,800 year BP; Chinese Turkestan • Paper technology in the 9th century Arab world. • To Moorish Spain in 1150 – to Italy in 1250 – to Germany in 1300 • England: 1590; Sir John Spielman receives a royal license to produce paper INK • Quality inks produced from Oak Galls • What’s a Gall? – A physical response/growth by a plant following the laying of an insect egg(s) into the plant’s tissue • The Ink Oak Gall – a wasp of the genus Cynips gallae-tinctoriae • Gall: Anglo-Saxon word meaning bitterness, irritation or offensive The wasp responsible Aleppo Gall The gall The final product Oak Apple Galls (by Oregon’s own gall wasp) Key Points Silk - Lac - Paper & Ink • Sericulture by moths – What species of insect? – What is the process? • Lac by scale insects – What is it? “Who” makes it? • Paper & Ink by wasps Glosssary Back to lecture Instar – n. a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt until sexual maturity is reached. Filature – n. The process of drawing fibres into threads, especially the process of reeling raw silk from cocoons.