Textile Fabrics and Finishes Objectives: Identify most common fabric constructions Describe main fabric finishing procedures Recognize importance of quality and performance standards Summarize aspects of the textile industry Explain how fabrics are sold down the chain Cite textile industry trade information Tell about future predictions for textiles Fabric Design and Construction Two forms of design Structural Design “Building in” texture or interest during manufacturing process Weaving and knitting most common Applied Design Adding color, pattern, or other features to the structural design Printing on fabric Fabric Construction Methods Weaving Knitting Plain: crosshatch Weft pattern Warp Twill: diagonal Nonwoven wale Fused Satin: floating Felted yarns Films Fabric Terms Grain – direction yarns run in the fabric Lengthwise - warp Crosswise - weft Diagonal - bias SELVAGE WARP WEFT BIAS Selvage “Finished” weft edge of fabric CUT EDGE SELVAGE Variations of Weaves Stripes Checks Plaids Jacquard Pile fabrics Terry cloth Corduroy Velvet Knitting Looping yarn together Made using one yarn Built-in stretch Wrinkle resistant Does not ravel like woven material, but may run Weft (filling) stretches in both directions Warp stretches one direction; run-proof Nonwoven Fabrics Compact web of fibers (not yarns) constructed using Moisture Heat Chemicals Friction Pressure No grain Other Construction Methods Laces and Nets Braids Decorative trims Bonded fabrics Fusible web Made by knotting Decorative trim Interfacing and hem tape Quilted fabrics Fabric Finishing Converters Mills that change greige goods into finished fabrics Applying colors, designs, or surface treatments Bleaching Dyeing Printing Finishes Dyeing Fiber Adding color to fibers before spinning into yarns Yarn Placing yarns in dye bath before making into fabric Piece Fabrics dyed after weaving or knitting Garment Dyed after construction Printing Adding color, pattern, or design to surface of fabric Overall prints Same across fabric Directional prints Specific direction to pattern Plaids Even - same in warp and weft Uneven - different in warp or weft Printing Methods Roller Applies color design by roller Screen Heat Transfer Design on printed paper transferred to fabric by heat and pressure Similar to stenciling Digital Rotary Screen Computer method uses ink-jet printing Applies color design by cylinder- Flocking shaped nylon Fibers attached by screens patterned glue Fabric Finishes Mechanical finishes affect size and appearance By heat, moisture, stretching, singeing Example: preshrinking Chemical finishes affect performance Permanent press Waterproof Water repellent Flame resistant Antistatic Stain and soil resistant Standards Quality Rate textiles according to levels of defects Performance Rate textiles for specific end-use suitability The Textile Specialized companies Industry perform stages of the textile segment of the chain Technology necessary CAD/CAM Fashion Tracking designs, trends, forecasts Marketing Planning, pricing, promoting, distributing Selling Finished Fabrics Staple fabrics Novelty fabrics Sold each year with little or no change in construction Fashion fabrics that change with style trends Overruns When a mill makes more fabric than was ordered by customers Trade Information American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc. (ATMI) Industry-wide marketing, government relations, trade policies American Printed Fabrics Council, Inc. (APFC) Printing achievements American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Wet processing aspects Future of Textiles Continued U.S. innovation Stay internationally competitive Update plants Continued automation Flexibility and versatility for shorter production runs of different fabrics Increased knit production Textile firms need more sophisticated marketing techniques Do You Know . . . A finishing term that ends in “proof” means complete protection (as in waterproof). Hand is the term used for textiles that refers to the way fabrics feel to the touch. Hand may apply to drape, softness, firmness, crispness, or elasticity.