Intro to Lab-on-a-Chip ENGR 1182.03 Pre Lab Lab-on-a-Chip Small scale chemical lab in a portable and disposable format. Require smaller amounts of reagents Disposable/Recyclable DNA analysis Manufactured with inexpensive materials OSU Research Biomedical Lab-on-a-Chip A type of Lab-on-a Chip used for Biomedical diagnostic tests specifically Biomedical Lab-on-a-Chip is also called a “Point of care” device Point of care: is defined as medical testing at or near the site of patient care makes the test available to the patient immediately and conveniently Therefore, physician receives the results quicker and can make immediate clinical decisions Examples for “point of care” devices Screening for infectious diseases in the emergency room Forensic analysis at crime scenes At home screening for HIV, Diabetes, or even Cancer 1182.03 Lab-on-a-Chip Sample delivery/collection Targeted compound- Fluorescein * Fluidics - Fluidic channels in the chip Detection interface - Detection Alignment Device * Analysis - Electric circuit to interpret detected data Readout/Display - Flashing LEDs* * - These are specific to our Lab-on-a-Chip project. Micro vs. Nano Our chip is based on micro-fluidics and thus has micron size channels. Our chip has channel widths of 300-400 microns and a depth of 200 microns. There are no nano-fluidic devices yet on the market. If we could manufacture nano-fluidic devices we might be able to: Use extremely small amount of samples. Control the flow of individual DNA or other biomolecules on the chip. Our Lab-on-a-chip project You will create 2 lab-on-a-chip designs that can detect and measure the concentration of fluorescein. What is fluorescein? Fluorescein Fluorescein in solution emits a “green” light when stimulated with “blue” light. This is called fluorescence. Since it isn’t toxic it can be used to track fluid flows and flow rates in the body. One Fluorescein Use A type of dye that is used in the study of the blood vessels in the eye. The test provides information about the circulatory system and the condition of the retina. Leakage between vessels Under Ultraviolet Light Retinal photograph of a patient complaining of decreased vision. Looks normal. Fluorescein angiogram indicating fluid leakage within the retina Dry Eye detection Fluorescein is also used to determine tear flow rate in the eyes as a diagnostic tool for dry eye syndrome. After putting fluorescein in the eye, tears coming into the eye will reduce the fluorescein concentration over time. The rate of concentration change can be used to determine tear flow rate. Objective of Our Chip After fluorescein put in the eyes, tear samples are taken at intervals and the concentration must be determined for each sample. Our chips must be able to reliably measure the concentration of multiple sequential samples of fluorescein. Read Project Description Document in the class materials for more details! Learning Objectives of Lab Understand and experiment with the generic lab-on-a-chip design. Test channels and overall chip design and functionality using colored tap water, generic PDMS chip and minimal tools and equipment. Gain insights on design for better chip performance and understand the importance of proper procedures and equipment.