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CHAPTER 5
CHEMISTRY
5.1 MATTER
5.2 THE pH SCALE
5.3 CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | ADVANCE ORGANIZER
FOLLOWING THIS LESSON, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:
• Describe matter, elements of hair and structure and
behavior of atoms and bonds
• Describe pH scale and values associated with water, acids
and alkalines
• Identify precautions necessary for various classifications
of chemicals when working with professional products
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | ADVANCE ORGANIZER
5.1 MATTER
ELEMENTS
CHEMICAL BONDS
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ADVANCE ORGANIZER
MATTER
Anything that occupies space
SOLID
definite weight,
volume and shape
LIQUID
definite weight
and volume but
indefinite shape
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER
GAS
definite weight
but indefinite
volume and shape
PHYSICAL CHANGE
Change in the physical characteristics of a substance
without creating a new substance
When water freezes it becomes ice. It is still water, but
now it’s a solid instead of a liquid.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER
CHEMICAL CHANGE
Change in a substance that creates a new substance
A chemical change occurs
when hydrogen combines
with oxygen to form a new
substance, water.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER
CHEMISTRY
Scientific study of matter and the physical and chemical
changes of matter
1. Organic Chemistry: deals with matter that is living or was
alive, with carbon present
2. Inorganic Chemistry: studies matter that is not alive, has
never been alive and does not contain carbon
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER
ELEMENTS
Basic substances that cannot be broken down into
simpler substances
Use this acronym to remember
the elements found in hair:
COHNS
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ELEMENTS
ATOMS
Smallest complete unit of an element
COMPOSED OF THREE MAIN PARTS:
1. Protons: positive electrical charge
2. Neutrons: no electrical charge
3. Electrons: negative electrical charge
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ELEMENTS
ATOMS
Chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on
number of electrons in the outer shell
Hydrogen
• Simplest atomic structure
• 1 proton and 1 electron
• Atomic number of 1
Positive Proton
Negative Proton
HYDROGEN ATOM (H)
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ELEMENTS
MOLECULES
Two or more atoms joined together by a chemical bond
TWO HYDROGEN
ATOMS, EACH WITH
ONE ELECTRON
ONE OXYGEN ATOM
AND ITS EIGHT
ELECTRONS
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ELEMENTS
THE RESULT IS H2O
MOLECULES
• With an element, the atoms are the SAME
• With a compound, the atoms are DIFFERENT
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
ELEMENTS
CHEMICAL BONDS
Amino Acids: compounds consisting of carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen and nitrogen
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
Hair: form of protein called keratin
Hair is made of 97% keratin protein and 3% trace minerals
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
Peptide Bonds (End Bonds): formed when two
amino acids are positioned end-to-end causing
acid end of one to attach to amino end of
another
• Amino acids that create protein are linked
together by a peptide bond
• Hair is the linking together of protein groups
It’s very important not to disturb peptide
bonds – combining alkaline chemicals and heat
could break these critical peptide bonds and
destroy the protein structure.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
FOUR SIDE BONDS
1. Hydrogen Bond
2. Salt Bond
3. Disulfide Bond
4. Van der Waal’s Forces
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
FOUR SIDE BONDS
1. Hydrogen Bond
• Works on principle that unlike charges attract
• Can easily be broken by heat or water
• Accounts for 35% of hair’s strength due to millions
of hydrogen bonds in hair’s structure
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
FOUR SIDE BONDS
2. Salt Bond
• Result of attraction of unlike charges; the negative
charge in one amino acid grouping attracts the
positive charge in another
• Accounts for 35% of hair’s resistance to change
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
FOUR SIDE BONDS
3. Disulfide Bond
• Results when sulfur-type side chains join with other
sulfur-type side chains
• Most important bond to cosmetology
• Broken or reformed by chemical services, producing
a chemical change with lasting results
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
FOUR SIDE BONDS
4. Van der Waal’s Forces
• Based on theory that atomic groups prefer environment
with other groups that have similar structures
• Not important for cosmetology services other than to know
that it exists and plays a role in bonding protein chains
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
1. Hair begins with individual atoms, the smallest
unit of matter
2. Atoms unite by sharing electrons to
become molecules of amino acids
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
AMINO ACIDS
3. The amino acids create polypeptide protein chains
4. The ends of the amino acids bond to form peptide bonds
5. The bonding of protein chains
to other protein chains makes
human hair
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
CHEMICAL BONDS
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer
the following questions.
1. Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or
gas is termed __________.
2. All of the following are elements that form the basis of
hair, nails and skin EXCEPT:
a. sulfur
b. helium
c. carbon
d. oxygen
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
3. T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons
and electrons.
4. The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the
number of __________ in the outer shell.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
5. __ Peptide bond
a. Negative charge in one amino acid
grouping attracts the positive charge in
another
6. __ Hydrogen bond
7. __ Salt bond
b. Formed when acid end of one amino
8. __ Disulfide bond
acid attaches to amino end of another
c.
Hydrogen atom in one molecule
attracted to atom of another molecule
with negative electrons
d. Most important bond to a salon
professional’s work
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-8, answer
the following questions.
1. Anything that occupies space existing as a solid, liquid or
matter
gas is termed __________.
2. All of the following are elements that form the basis of
hair, nails and skin EXCEPT:
a. sulfur
b. helium
c. carbon
d. oxygen
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
3. T or F Atoms have a nucleus containing protons
and electrons.
Protons and neutrons are packed together tightly to
form the nucleus.
Electrons move about the nucleus on orbiting paths.
4. The chemical behavior of atoms depends mostly on the
electrons in the outer shell.
number of __________
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
b Peptide bond
5. __
a. Negative charge in one amino acid
grouping attracts the positive charge in
another
c Hydrogen bond
6. __
a Salt bond
7. __
b. Formed when acid end of one amino
d Disulfide bond
8. __
acid attaches to amino end of another
c.
Hydrogen atom in one molecule
attracted to atom of another molecule
with negative electrons
d. Most important bond to a salon
professional’s work
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
SELF-CHECK
FACE THE FACTS
MATTER
 Defined as anything that occupies space
ELEMENTS
 The five elements found in the hair are carbon, oxygen,
hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur
 Atoms are the smallest complete unit of an element
and consist of protons, neutrons and electrons
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
 Protons and neutrons located in nucleus
 A molecule is two or more atoms joined by
chemical bond
CHEMICAL BONDS
 Hair is a form of protein called keratin
 Peptide bond forms when two amino acids are
positioned end-to-end causing the acid end of one to
attach to amino end of another
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
CHEMICAL BONDS
 Hydrogen bonds give hair about 35% of its strength
 Salt bonds are result of attraction of unlike charges and
account for 35% of hair’s strength
 Disulfide bond is most important to a salon professional’s
work since many chemical services break or reform this
bond into new shape
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | MATTER |
FACE THE FACTS
5.2 THE pH SCALE
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
ADVANCE ORGANIZER
THE pH SCALE
pH (Potential Hydrogen): unit of measurement that
indicates whether a substance is acidic, neutral or alkaline
• Measures the amount of acid or alkali in a
water-based solution
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE
THE pH SCALE
ACIDIC SOLUTION
more positive hydrogen
ions than negative
hydroxide ions
NEUTRAL SOLUTION
equal number
of positive and
negative ions
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE
ALKALINE SOLUTION
More negative
hydroxide ions than
positive hydrogen ions
THE pH SCALE
• Ranges from 0 to 14 with number 7 as neutral
• Numbers less than seven indicate acid
• Numbers greater than seven indicate alkaline
The scale is logarithmic, which means each step or
number increases by multiples of 10
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE
THE pH SCALE
ACID BALANCED
• Means pH is between 4.5 to 5.5
• Is the term applied to most professional shampoos
Acid Balanced
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-7, answer the
following questions.
1. T
or F
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers
less than 7 indicating alkaline.
2. Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions
and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________.
3. An acidic solution contains more __________ ions
than __________ ions.
4. An alkaline solution contains more __________ ions
than __________ ions.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
5. __ Acidic solution
a. pH value of approximately 7
6. __ Alkaline solution
b. pH values less than 7
7. __ Neutral solution
c.
pH values greater than 7
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-7, answer the
following questions.
1. T
or F
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14 with numbers
less than 7 indicating alkaline.
2. Distilled water has equal numbers of hydroxide ions
neutral
and hydrogen ions causing it to be __________.
hydrogen ions
3. An acidic solution contains more __________
hydroxide ions.
than __________
hydroxide ions
4. An alkaline solution contains more __________
hydrogen ions.
than __________
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
b Acidic solution
5. __
a. pH value of approximately 7
c Alkaline solution
6. __
b. pH values less than 7
a Neutral solution
7. __
c.
pH values greater than 7
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
SELF-CHECK
FACE THE FACTS
THE pH SCALE
 Unit of measurement that indicates whether substance
is acidic, neutral or alkaline
 Ranges from 0 to 14; below 7 is acid; above 7 is alkaline;
7 is neutral
 Logarithmic, each step or number increases by
multiples of 10
 Acid balanced means the pH is in the acid range of 4.5
to 5.5
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | THE pH SCALE |
FACE THE FACTS
5.3 CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SHAMPOOS
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
PERMS
RELAXERS
CURL REFORMATION
HAIR COLOR
PRODUCT INFORMATION
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
ADVANCE ORGANIZER
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
Six classifications categorize cosmetics used in the
cosmetology industry:
1. SOLUTIONS
2. SUSPENSIONS
3. EMULSIONS
4. OINTMENTS
5. SOAPS
6. POWDERS
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SOLUTIONS
Solution: mixture of two or more kinds of
evenly dispersed molecules
Solute: any substance that dissolves into a
liquid and forms a solution
Solvent: substance that is able to dissolve
another substance
Mixture: two or more substances
that are physically combined
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SOLUTIONS
Water is considered a universal solvent because it
is capable of dissolving more substances than any
other solvent.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SUSPENSIONS
Mixture of two or more molecules that
separate when left standing and need to
be shaken before use.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
EMULSIONS
Formed when two or more nonmixable substances are
united by binder or gum-like substance.
Oil-in-water
Water-in-oil
Perm Solutions
Cold Creams
Immiscible = liquids not able to be mixed
Miscible = liquids able to be mixed together
without separating
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
OINTMENTS
Mixtures of organic substances and a
medicinal agent; usually found in semisolid form.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SOAPS
Mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty
acids by heat and then purified.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
POWDERS
Equal mixtures of inorganic and organic
substances that do not dissolve in water.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
SHAMPOOS
Shampoos clean scalp and hair to remove foreign matter
without adversely affecting scalp or hair.
Shampooing should be a soothing, relaxing experience,
as it sets the climate for all future services.
Improper cleansing allows a breeding place for diseasecausing bacteria and can lead to scalp disorders and even
hair loss.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
HOW SHAMPOO WORKS
Surfactants: cleansing agents used to remove oil from hair
• Consist of two parts
1. Water-Loving Part
(Hydrophilic)
2. Oil-Loving Part
(Lipophilic)
• Cause oil to “roll up” into droplets, which are lifted into
water and washed away
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
THE ROLE OF WATER
Hard water contains certain salts and metals that prevent
shampoo from lathering
Soft water contains small amounts of minerals and is
preferred because it lathers freely
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
THE ROLE OF WATER
Two methods used in purification of water:
1. Sedimentation: undesirable substances sink to
the bottom
2. Filtration: undesirable substances pass through
a porous substance
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
ALL-PURPOSE SHAMPOOS
• Contain low alkaline content and low concentration of
surface active agents
• Do not strip color and are very mild
ACID-BALANCED (NON-STRIPPING) SHAMPOOS
• Formulated to have same pH as hair and skin and can be
used on all types of hair
PLAIN SHAMPOOS
• Contain high alkaline soap base and are usually strong
• Not recommended for chemically treated or damaged hair
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
SOAPLESS SHAMPOOS
• Lather without harsh alkaline ingredients
• Are effective in both soft and hard water
• Rinse out easily
MEDICATED SHAMPOOS
• Designed to treat scalp and hair problems
CLARIFYING SHAMPOOS
• Use higher alkalinity in order to remove residue such as
product buildup, dirt, etc.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
ANTI-DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS
• Formulated for either dry or oily scalp
• Contain an anti-fungus or germicide
LIQUID DRY SHAMPOOS
• Cleanse scalp and hair when the client is unable to
receive normal shampoo
• Effective in cleaning wigs and hairpieces
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
POWDER DRY SHAMPOOS
• Formulated for clients who are bedridden
• Contain orris root powder that absorbs soil and oil as
the product is brushed through the scalp and hair
• Do not apply prior to a chemical service
CONDITIONING SHAMPOOS
• Contain small amounts of animal, vegetable additives
that penetrate the cortex or coat the cuticle layer
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
COLOR SHAMPOOS
• Contain temporary color molecules that adhere to
outer cuticle of the hair and deposit color
SHAMPOOS FOR THINNING HAIR
• May contain ingredients to provide a healthy
environment for the maximum amount of hair growth
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SHAMPOOS
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
• COSMETIC APPEARANCE is luster or shine of the hair
• POROSITY is amount of moisture, liquids or chemicals
hair can absorb
• MANAGEABILITY is how easily a comb can pass
through hair
• ELASTICITY is ability of hair to stretch and return to
natural shape without breaking
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
RINSES
• Affect mostly surface of the hair
• Applied to help close cuticle and make hair
feel soft and manageable
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
RINSES
VINEGAR AND LEMON (ACID) RINSES
• Keep cuticle compact
• Dissolve soap scum, untangle and separate
hair and add sheen
CRÈME RINSES
• Soften and add luster
• Slightly acidic
MEDICATED RINSES
• Control minor dandruff and scalp conditions
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
CONDITIONERS
Penetrate deep into hair to fortify damaged areas and
protect from further damage
INSTANT CONDITIONERS
• Coat hair shaft and restore moisture and oils
• Do not penetrate cortex or replace keratin in shaft
NORMALIZING CONDITIONERS
• Contain a vegetable protein
• Have an acidic pH causing the cuticle to close after
alkaline chemical service
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
CONDITIONERS
BODY-BUILDING CONDITIONERS
• Penetrate damaged hair shaft and deposit
proteins into cortex
• May be used prior to chemical services to
strengthen hair
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
CONDITIONERS
MOISTURIZING CONDITIONERS
• Recommended for dry, brittle hair
• Contain humectants that penetrate into hair shaft
to bind and hold moisture
CUSTOMIZED CONDITIONERS
• Formulated to meet special needs of certain clients
• Mixing moisturizing conditioner with body-building
protein product to improve the condition of client’s
hair is an example
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
PERMS
Allow hair designers to chemically reform hair into wavy or
curly formation.
ORIGINAL
STRAIGHT HAIR
SHIFTING AND
BREAKING
OF DISULFIDE BONDS
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PERMS
DISULFIDE
BONDS REFORMED
PERMS
1. ALKALINE WAVES (COLD WAVES)
• Process without heat
• pH of 8.0 – 9.5
2. ACID WAVES (HEAT WAVES)
• Process with heat
• Wrapped with tension
• pH of 6.9 – 7.2
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PERMS
ALKALINE WAVES
• Main ingredient found in alkaline waves is thioglycolic
acid or its derivatives and ammonium hydroxide
• Ammonium hydroxide is added to formula to shorten
processing time and cause hair swelling
• Processing begins as soon as chemical is applied to hair
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PERMS
ACID WAVES
• Main ingredient found in acid waves is glyceryl
monothioglycolate
• More controlled curl and less damage to hair
• Heat sometimes used to assist penetration of
hair structure
NEUTRALIZER
• Main ingredient is either hydrogen peroxide,
sodium perborate or sodium bromate
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PERMS
RELAXERS
Reduce curl in excessively curly or wavy hair by
changing molecular structure
Reforming (Relaxing) Product: holds hair in straight
position while being processed; in addition smoothing
or pressing action is applied
Neutralizing Step: utilizes neutralizing shampoo or
lotion; reduces swelling and causes hair to be held in
straight configuration
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RELAXERS
RELAXERS
Two popular types of products used to
chemically relax hair:
1. Sodium Hydroxide – 2% to 3% sodium
hydroxide in heavy cream base with pH
from 11.5 to 14
2. Ammonium Thioglycolate –
4% to 6% thioglycolic acid;
pH 8.5 to 9.5
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
RELAXERS
CURL REFORMATION
Service used to loosen the texture of overly curly to tightly
curled hair
1. Thioglycolate-based product is applied
2. Hair is smoothed using back of comb and fingers
3. Thioglycolate product is rinsed from hair when straightened
shape is achieved
4. Curl booster is applied along with perm rods to achieve
curl formation
5. When test curl shows desired curl formation hair is rinsed
6. Neutralizing lotion is applied to reform (fix) curl in lasting
shape
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
CURL REFORMATION
HAIR COLOR
GENERAL CATEGORIES
• Nonoxidative Color
• Oxidative Color
• Lighteners
• Developers
• Vegetable, Metallic and
Compound Dyes
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
HAIR COLOR
Oxidants (Developers): products that have ability to release
oxygen, which is needed for chemical change
Oxidative colors are mixed
with an oxidant (developer) such
as hydrogen peroxide
Nonoxidative colors are used
straight from the bottle
Oxidation: process where substance loses electron and oxygen
is acquired
Reduction: process where substance gains electron and oxygen
is released
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
NONOXIDATIVE COLORS
TEMPORARY COLORS: nonreactive, direct
dyes that coat the surface of hair shaft
• Certified colors
• Accepted by government for use in
foods, drugs and cosmetics
• Only last until shampooed out
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
NONOXIDATIVE COLORS
SEMI-PERMANENT COLORS: dye
molecules in a solution that are able to
penetrate cuticle layer versus coating
• Slightly more alkaline in pH than
temporary colors
• Used straight from the bottle;
not mixed with oxidants
• Last through several shampoos
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
OXIDATIVE COLORS
LONG-LASTING SEMI-PERMANENT COLORS: use low
volume peroxide to develop color molecules and aid in
color depositing
• Add color to hair; cannot lift
or lighten
• Available in liquid, cream and gel
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
OXIDATIVE COLORS
PERMANENT COLORS: penetrate cuticle
and cortex, remain in hair until removed
by chemical means or hair grows out and
is cut off
• Use oxidation system that starts out with
colorless molecules that combine with
peroxide resulting
in chemical reaction that builds colored
molecules
• Can lighten natural color or deposit
artificial color
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
LIGHTENERS
Bleaching or decolorizing
• Involves oxidation of natural melanin in hair; causes
several color changes as pigment disperses and lightens
hair to new level
• Uses peroxide and alkaline
product such as ammonia
• Mix with peroxide immediately
before application because only
then is oxidation at full strength
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
LIGHTENERS
1. On-the-scalp lighteners (oil and cream)
• Use ammonia to give high lift
• Contain conditioners
• Mild enough to apply directly on the scalp
• pH about 9
2. Off-the-scalp lighteners (powder bleaches)
• Stronger and faster than oil or cream lighteners
• Can irritate scalp (burns and blisters)
• pH about 10.3
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
DEVELOPERS
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H202): most common developer
• Most often used strength is 20-volume
• Comes in clear, cloudy,
creamy and gel forms
• Has pH between 2.5 and 4.5
• Requires storage in a cool,
dry place, shelf life of 3 years
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
VEGETABLE, METALLIC AND COMPOUND DYES
Less professional category of hair color;
the more these colors are used the more
color change takes place
HENNA
• Is an example of a vegetable dye
• Produces reddish highlights if
used in purest form
• Allows hair to grow completely
out before any chemical service
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
VEGETABLE, METALLIC AND COMPOUND DYES
Pure metallic dyes
• Incompatible with other
chemical services
• Fade into unnatural shades
depending on metal used
Compound dyes are a
combination of a vegetable
and metallic dye
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
HAIR COLOR
PRODUCT INFORMATION
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS: contain special
information about products from manufacturer
Additional information resources are:
• Federal Drug Administration (FDA)
• United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.)
• International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PRODUCT INFORMATION
COSMETIC INGREDIENTS
• Ingredients listed on product label are in order of
concentration with largest amount listed first
• More than 5,000 different ingredients are used by
cosmetics industry
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
PRODUCT INFORMATION
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-17, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Surfactants are used to remove oil from
the hair.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
2.
__ All-Purpose Shampoos
3.
__ “Plain” Shampoos
4.
__ Medicated Shampoos
5.
__ Anti-Dandruff Shampoos
6.
__ Powder Dry Shampoos
a.
For clients who are bedridden and
cannot wet hair
b.
Contain alkaline, not recommended
for chemically treated hair
c.
Cleanse hair without correcting any
special condition
d.
Formulated for either a dry or
oily scalp
e.
Contain ingredients designed
to treat scalp and hair problems
or disorders
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
7. Which of the following rinses leaves the hair with
a soft feel by adhering to the hair shaft and is only
slightly acidic?
a. lemon
b. creme
c. vinegar
d. medicated
8. Products that fortify damaged areas of hair and protect
against further damage from chemical services or heat
are called __________.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
9. All of the following statements regarding perms are
true EXCEPT:
a. perms allow hair designers to chemically reform hair
b. two primary categories of perms are alkaline waves
and acid waves
c. main chemical ingredient found in alkaline waves is
glyceryl monothioglycolate
d. main ingredient found in most neutralizers is
either hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, or
sodium bromate
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
10. Sodium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are the
products called __________ that reduce curl in
excessively curly hair by changing its molecular structure.
11. A soft curl perm loosens the texture of overly curly
hair by:
a.using a low volume peroxide
b.using a thioglycolate-based product
c.rinsing the sodium hydroxide relaxer with disulfide
d.following a thioglycolic relaxer with a sodium
hydroxide relaxer
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
12.
__ Nonoxidative Colors
a.
Referred to as decolorizing and
involves oxidation of natural
melanin in the hair
b.
Less professional category of
hair color
c.
Not mixed with oxidants and used
straight from the bottle
d.
Mixed with an oxidant such as
hydrogen peroxide
e.
Most common agent is
hydrogen peroxide
13. __ Oxidative Colors
14. __ Lightening
15. __ Developers
16. __ Vegetable, Metallic
and Compound Dyes
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
17. When you read a product label, the ingredients are
listed in order of their ______________.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
On a sheet of paper numbered 1-17, answer the
following questions.
1. T or F
Surfactants are used to remove oil from
the hair.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
2.
c All-Purpose Shampoos
__
3.
b “Plain” Shampoos
__
4.
e Medicated Shampoos
__
5.
d Anti-Dandruff Shampoos
__
6.
a Powder Dry Shampoos
__
a.
For clients who are bedridden and
cannot wet hair
b.
Contain alkaline, not recommended
for chemically treated hair
c.
Cleanse hair without correcting any
special condition
d.
Formulated for either a dry or
oily scalp
e.
Contain ingredients designed
to treat scalp and hair problems
or disorders
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
7. Which of the following rinses leaves the hair with
a soft feel by adhering to the hair shaft and is only
slightly acidic?
a. lemon
b. creme
c. vinegar
d. medicated
8. Products that fortify damaged areas of hair and protect
against further damage from chemical services or heat
conditioners
are called __________.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
9. All of the following statements regarding perms are
true EXCEPT:
a. perms allow hair designers to chemically reform hair
b. two primary categories of perms are alkaline waves
and acid waves
c. main chemical ingredient found in alkaline waves is
glyceryl monothioglycolate
d. main ingredient found in most neutralizers is
either hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, or
sodium bromate
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
10. Sodium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are the
relaxers that reduce curl in
products called __________
excessively curly hair by changing its molecular structure.
11. A soft curl perm loosens the texture of overly curly
hair by:
a.using a low volume peroxide
b.using a thioglycolate-based product
c.rinsing the sodium hydroxide relaxer with disulfide
d.following a thioglycolic relaxer with a sodium
hydroxide relaxer
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
Match the term with the best description.
12.
c Nonoxidative Colors
__
a.
Referred to as decolorizing and
involves oxidation of natural
melanin in the hair
b.
Less professional category of
hair color
c.
Not mixed with oxidants and used
straight from the bottle
d.
Mixed with an oxidant such as
hydrogen peroxide
e.
Most common agent is
hydrogen peroxide
d Oxidative Colors
13. __
a Lightening
14. __
e Developers
15. __
b Vegetable, Metallic
16. __
and Compound Dyes
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
SELF-CHECK
17. When you read a product label, the ingredients are
concentration
listed in order of their ______________.
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
SELF-CHECK
FACE THE FACTS
COSMETIC CLASSIFICATIONS
 Six classifications: solutions, suspensions, emulsions,
ointments, soaps, and powders
SHAMPOOS
 Contain surfactants that have water-loving part
(hydrophilic) and oil-loving part (lipophilic)
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
RINSES AND CONDITIONERS
 Crème rinses adhere to hair shaft leaving hair with
a soft feel
 Conditioners fortify damaged areas of the hair and
protect it against further damage from chemical
services or heat
PERMS
 Fall into two categories, alkaline waves and acid
waves, and allow hair designers to chemically reform
hair into a wavy or curly formation
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
RELAXERS
 Reduces curl in excessively curly or wavy hair by
changing its molecular structure
CURL REFORMATION
 Uses thioglycolate-based products to relax overly curly
hair and then perm hair to achieve new curl formation
HAIR COLOR
 Nonoxidative colors are not mixed with oxidants and are
used straight from the bottle
 Oxidative colors are mixed with hydrogen peroxide
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
FACE THE FACTS
FACE THE FACTS
 Lightening is also referred to as bleaching or decolorizing
and involves oxidation of the natural melanin in hair
 Hydrogen peroxide is most common developer
used in hair coloring and hair lightening
PRODUCT INFORMATION
 When you read a product label, the ingredients are listed
in the order of their concentration
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | CHEMISTRY OF COSMETICS |
FACE THE FACTS
LESSONS LEARNED
 The bonding of protein chains to other protein chains
makes human hair
 The pH scale indicates whether a substance is acidic,
neutral or alkaline to assist professionals in keeping
the hair, skin and scalp in the best condition possible
 Knowledge of the six classifications of cosmetics
helps professionals understand product labels and
usage directions
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | LESSONS LEARNED
SELF-TEST
CHAPTER 5 CHEMISTRY | SELF-TEST

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