Color Theory - HCC Southeast Commons

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Color Theory
What is color?
What is it?
• Color is the
visual
perception of
the reflection of
light.
Law of Color
• Only three
colors, called
primary “pure”
colors
Yellow, red and
blue
Secondary Colors
• Two primary colors
mixed in varying
proportions =
Orange
Green
Violet
Color Wheel
• 12 –hue color circle
created from the three
primary colors
• Name of a color
referred to as tone or
hue, identified by its
position on the color
wheel.
• Tone can be described
as warm, cool or
neutral.
Warm and Cool Colors
• Colors can be
classified as
either warms
or cool colors
Complementary Colors
• Opposite one
another on the
color wheel.
• When mixed
equally they
neutralized each
other
Characteristics of Color
• Color has three main
characteristics
– Hue- identified based on
it’s position on the color
wheel
– Value/level degree of
lightness or darkness of
a color relative to itself
and other colors
– Intensity- the vividness,
brightness or saturation
within its own level
Identifying Existing Color
Contributing color
+
Artificial
Color
=
Final color
result
Melanin
• Two types of melanin in
the cortex of the hair
• Eumelamin-black
pigment
• Pheomelamin- red
pigment
Gray Hair
• Melanocytes slow down
production
• Strands lose color
• Heredity
• Different patterns of
gray
• Percentages of gray vary
with individuals
Applications for Gray
• 75-80% gray hair; adjust
color formula to one
level darker than
desired level
• 25-30% gray; apply a
color one level lighter
than the desired shade
Gray Hair
• Pre-soften
resistant hair
or pre-lighten
to increase
porosity
Hair Color Chemistry
• Types of hair color
– Non-oxidative-nonreactive, direct dyes that
only coat the surface of
the hair shaft/ nothing
to lighten and no
chemical changes occur.
Certified colors used in
foods, drug and
cosmetics last until
shampooed out
Non-Oxidative Color
• Semi-permanent
– Last through several
shampoos, dye
molecules in solution
capable of penetrating
the cuticle layer, smaller
in size, slightly alkaline.
Oxidative Hair Color
• Demi-uses low volume
peroxide developer,
only add color to the
hair, cannot lift hair
color
Permanent Hair Colors
• Combined with
peroxide, chemical
reaction occurs
• Small molecules
penetrate the hair,
oxidize in the cortex and
link to form a
permanent colored
molecule
Permanent Hair Colors
• Also referred to as
aniline derivative tints/
penetrate the cuticle
and cortex, remain until
they are removed by
chemical means, hair
grows out and is cut off.
• Main ingredient is
paraphenylene diamine
24 hour patch test must
Be given before any permanent
Hair color application
To ensure the client is not
Allergic to the product
Lighteners
• Bleaching or decolorizing, used when a
lighter hair color is
desired
• Involves the oxidation
of the natural melanin
in the hair.
• Hair goes through
several stages of color
changes as it is
lightened
Types of Lighteners
• On-the-scalp lighteners
– Gentle can be applied
directly on the scalp
• Oil lighteners pH 9
• Cream lighteners pH 9
Off- the- scalp
Powder bleach, alkaline
salts and strong oxidizing
agents. Stronger than oil
or cream
Developers
• Hydrogen peroxide
(H²O²) most common
oxidizing agent
• Volume = amount of
oxygen gas removed
from solution. Also
called developer
Vegetable, Metallic and Compound
Dyes
• Not professionally used
• Contain vegetable dyes
• Metallic salts and or
combination of the two
• Henna
• Interfere with other
professional beauty
services
• Can be toxic to the
client and the operator

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