bridge - City & Guilds

Report
BRIDGE the Gap Between
Authentic Materials and Exams:
Using Bridge Magazine to Prepare Students
for International Exams and Maturita
BRNO
TROY WITT
March 22th 2013
OVERVIEW OF THE SEMINAR
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PART A: Theory & Practice (25 mins)
PART B: Reading (45 mins)
PART C: Speaking (45 mins)
PART D: Writing (45 mins)
PART E: Conclusions (20 mins)
WHY B2?
Today we’ll focus on the CEFR B2 level.
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While B1 is the common level of achievement expected of students leaving
secondary school, B2 is often required for university entrance.
It is the most widely taught and tested level.
Most employers use this level (with a corresponding certificate) as the benchmark
for potential job candidates.
PART A: Theory & Practice
This part of the seminar will…
• Examine the pros and cons of ‘international’ or ‘standardized’ exam systems as a
language proficiency assessment tool
• Explore the challenges we face as teachers in preparing our students for success in
these exams
• Consider the value of using authentic materials in the classroom
STANDARIZED EXAMS
PROS
CONS
• There is value in having a standard
against which students can be measured.
• An official ‘qualification’ is an asset in
both the higher-educational and
professional spheres.
• Can be a motivator: some students are
driven best by tangible goals and
achievements, such as an exam
certificate.
• The ‘one size fits all’ format does not
account for different types of students
and their individual learning approaches.
• The best students can be the worst test
takers; so what does an exam result
actually tell us in practical terms?
• Can be a demotivator: some students
aren’t able to relate a certificate to
actual progress in their learning, or
become threatened by the prospect of
sitting an exam.
EXAM PREPARATION?
“If students who are preparing for an exam only ever look at test types, discuss exam
technique, and take practice tests, lessons may become monotonous. There is also the
possibility that general English improvement will be compromised at the expense of
exam preparation.”
Jeremy Harmer
The Practice of English Language Teaching
“A common problem with exam preparation classes arises when too much time is
spent on exam technique and not enough on other areas.”
Jim Scrivener
Learning Teaching
AS TEACHERS
To me, exam preparation is…
worth the
effort
a challenge
a
necessary
evil
a waste of
time
a mystery
AUTHENTIC MATERIAL
Why use authentic material in your class?
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Standarized exams aim to test a candidate’s proficiency in ‘real-world’ situations,
which authentic resources are derived from.
The ‘contrived’ construction of TEFL materials means that many natural aspects of
communication are lost.
Authentic materials reinforce the relationship between the classroom and the
outside world, where proficiency will truly be tested.
Whereas TEFL materials are tend to restrict focus to a particular linguistic point,
authentic materials combine a variety of relevant linguistic elements.
BRIDGE magazine provides a source of authentic materials that can be used to
practice the skills tested in standardized exams as well as Maturita.
PART B: READING
This part of the seminar will…
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Review the different reading tasks of the City & Guilds B2 Communicator paper, and
the skills required of a candidate in each
Provide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge
magazine to develop these skills
CITY & GUILDS: Reading Parts 1 – 4
COMMUNICATOR
LEVEL B2
DESCRIPTION
SKILL
Reading Part 1:
Multiple Choice
One long text
Six four-option multiple choice
questions
understand in detail information,
ideas and opinions
Reading Part 2:
Sentence Insertion
One text with six sentences
removed
Choice of eight sentences to choose
from to complete the six gaps
understand how meaning is built
up in a text
Reading Part 3:
Multiple Matching
Four short texts with a linked theme,
but with a different purpose
Nine multiple matching questions to
identify information from the texts
understand the purpose of text
and to locate specific
information and awareness of
writers’ stance and attitude
Reading Part 4:
Short Answers
One long text
Nine open-ended ‘wh’ questions
requiring short answers
understand specific information
through detailed reading
READING: CITY & GUILDS vs. MATURITA
TASK
CITY & GUILDS
MATURITA
Multiple Choice
1
3/1
Sentence Insertion
2
n/a
Multiple Matching
3
4
Short Answers
4
n/a
READING PART 1: Multiple Choice
READING PART 1: Multiple Choice
A candidate needs to…
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Locate and extract detailed information, ideas & opinions (scanning)
Understand overall meaning, context or genre (often required in the final question)
Avoid distractors that lead to incorrect options
BRIDGE: How I Didn’t Make It To The NHL
December 2012, pgs 12-13
READING PART 1:
A BRIDGE to Multiple Choice
• In pairs, read the first section of the article. Partner A should summarize section 1 for
Partner B in his/her own words, and finish doing so by completing the following
sentence: “The main idea of this section is…”
• Alternate roles with your partner and repeat the process for the remaining sections.
• Focus on the section of the article assigned to you by the teacher. With your partner,
create two multiple choice questions:
 Question 1 – focus on the ‘main idea’ that you have already talked about.
 Question 2 – focus on a ‘specific detail’ (hint: you can use the phrases in bold).
• Write out the correct answer first, and then add three distractors.
• Test your classmates with your questions!
READING PART 3: Multiple Matching
READING PART 3: Multiple Matching
A candidate needs to…
• Locate and extract specific information
• Demonstrate extended comprehension skills, by recognizing parallel structures and
rephrasing of content
• Understand the purpose of a text, or the authors position or attitude
• Recognize different text structures such as an email, brochure, advert etc.
BRIDGE: Strange But True
September 2012, pg 19, October 2012 pg 23
READING PART 3:
A BRIDGE to Multiple Matching
• On a piece of paper, write the following (with a little space in between):
 A. Which text… ?
 B. Which text answers the following questions?
• Read the first text. Working with a partner, choose 2 facts that you both found
interesting. State the facts using you own words—don’t just repeat the words from
the text.
• Using your first fact, finish A above (again using your own words!). For B, write a full
question that uses your second fact as the answer.
• Repeat the process for the other two texts (hint: You can make this more interesting
by looking for a similar element in two or more texts, and base you question on that).
• Test your classmates who've read the other texts with your questions!
READING PART 4: Short Answers
READING PART 4: Short Answers
A candidate needs to…
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Locate and extract specific information, and determine which is key
Comprehend the overall purpose or intent of a text
Rephrase information (being concise, word formation)
Be familiar with different text types such as narratives, instructions, biographies,
articles, descriptions etc.
BRIDGE: Radio Elegance
October 2012, pgs 4-5
READING PART 4:
A BRIDGE to Short Answers
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In pairs, read the first section of the article. Partner A should summarize section 1
for Partner B in his/her own words.
Working together, choose two interesting sentences that are factual and underline
them.
Alternate roles with your partner and repeat the process for the remaining sections
(you should have underlined eight sentences in total).
Read the factual sentences you underlined again.
For each, write a ‘WH’ question that uses your sentence as the answer.
Test your classmates with your questions!
PART C: SPEAKING
This part of the seminar will…
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Review the different speaking tasks of the City & Guilds B2 Communicator paper, and
the skills required of a candidate in each
Provide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge
magazine to develop these skills
CITY & GUILDS: Speaking Parts 1 – 4
COMMUNICATOR
LEVEL B2
DESCRIPTION
TIME
Speaking Part 1:
Personal Information
The candidate is asked questions on various topics and must
answer by drawing on his/her own experiences and opinions.
2 mins
Speaking Part 2:
Situational Roleplays
Two or three situations are presented by the interlocutor and
candidates are required to respond to or initiate interactions.
2 mins
Speaking Part 3:
Interactive Task
Using differing sets of input information, the candidate and
interlocutor hold a discussion to make a plan, arrange or decided
something
3 mins
Speaking Part 4:
Long Turn
After 30 seconds of preparation time talk (2-3 minutes) about a
topic provided by the interlocutor and answer follow-up questions.
3 mins
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6IslWVtZ3g
SPEAKING: CITY & GUILDS vs. MATURITA
TASK
CITY & GUILDS
MATURITA
Personal Information
1
1
Situational Roleplays
2
n/a
Interactive Task
3
4
Long Turn
4
3
BRIDGE: Looking For A Family
December 2012, pgs 6-7
Start by doing
a ‘paired’
reading!
SPEAKING PART 1: Personal Information
SPEAKING PART 1:Personal Information
A candidate needs to…
• Employ level-appropriate lexis for a wide range of subject areas
• Communicate personal information and experiences
• Express opinions and ideas
SPEAKING PART 1:
A BRIDGE to Personal Information
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With a partner, answer the following questions:
 The main topic of the article is….
 The subtopics the article talks about are…
Think about the topics and subtopics you’ve mentioned:
 Choose two, and create a related question that asks about someone’s personal
experience with each.
 With the other two, create a related question that asks about someone’s opinion
on each.
Ask and answer the questions with your partner!
Here’s something to start you off…
SPEAKING PART 3: Interactive Task
SPEAKING PART 3: Interactive Task
A candidate needs to…
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Prepare and a deliver a cohesive discourse that moves through a series of points and
concludes
Utilize situation-appropriate functional language
Exchange information (provision and reception)
Co-operate in order to reach an agreement or decision
SPEAKING PART 3:
A BRIDGE to Interactive Task
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With your partner, answer the following:
 What is the main question/issue the article raises?
OR
 What is the most important decision that needs to be made?
Think about four factors/ideas that could influence this question/issue help make
this decision.
Fill in the ‘Decision Maker’ and then use it as basis to discuss which factors/ideas
are the best or most important, how each would affect the decision, the
consequences of each etc.
Try to come to some consensus about the ‘best way forward!’
The Decision Maker
SPEAKING PART 4: Long Turn
SPEAKING PART 4: Long Turn
A candidate needs to…
• Construct a cohesive and coherent narrative, or organize an argument with support
• Make use of appropriate lexis to support a theme or concept
• Clearly communicate ideas and express opinions
SPEAKING PART 4:
A BRIDGE to Long Turn
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With a partner, answer the following questions (remember Part 1?):
 The main topic of the article is….
 The subtopics the article talks about are…
For the main topic you’ve mentioned, write a ‘topic sentence’ that could be used as a
basis for a talk.
For the subtopic you’ve mentioned, write 3 related questions.
Return to the topic sentence, and take 30 seconds to think about your talk or make
some notes.
Give your one-and-a-half minute talk to your partner, who will then ask you the
follow-up questions
PART D: WRITING
This part of the seminar will…
• Review the structure and format the City & Guilds B2 Communicator writing paper,
and the skills is required of a candidate to successfully complete it
• Provide practical ideas and exercises for using authentic material from Bridge
magazine to develop these skills
CITY & GUILDS: Writing Parts 1 – 4
COMMUNICATOR
LEVEL B2
DESCRIPTION
LENGTH
Writing Part 1:
Transactional Task
Respond appropriately to a given text, graphic or visual input to
produce a response for an intended public audience
100 – 150
words
Writing Part 2:
Personal Writing
Produce a personal letter, a narrative or descriptive composition
150 – 200
words
City & Guilds Part 1 corresponds directly to Maturita Part 1.
ASSESSING WRITING
CRITERIA
DESCRIPTION
task fulfillment
A measure of how far the candidate has achieved/addressed the task. Has the
candidate done what was asked (eg “Write four sentences” – are there four
sentences?)
grammar
vocabulary
structure
A measure of the range, appropriacy and accuracy of grammar.
A measure of the range, accuracy and appropriacy of vocabulary. This
criterion also includes spelling accuracy.
A measure of coherence and cohesion. How the text is put together. Is there
an attempt to link the ideas and to organise them in a coherent manner? We
also look at the accurate use of punctuation in this criterion.
WRITING PART 1: Transactional Task
WRITING PART 1: Transactional Task
A candidate needs to…
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Organize the piece of writing in a logical way, to include all four content points
Understand and be familiar with the structural elements of the writing form
required (in this case an article)
Produce a coherent, cohesive final product that demonstrates the above
BRIGE: Carnival and Jazz
September 2012, pgs 14-15
Start by doing
a ‘paired’
reading!
WRITING PART 1:
A BRIDGE to Transactional Task
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Review the article checklist, and try to identify the as many points as possible
through examples.
Identify the main theme of the article, by completing the following sentence: “This
article is really about…”
Use the ‘Article Creator’ to create a task based on the main theme.
Write your article in 100 – 150 words.
An ARTICLE Checklist
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Is intended for a public audience
Needs an interesting title
Uses a semi-formal register, and may include 1st person narrative
Uses literary devices (rhetorical questions, exclamations, exaggeration or
overstatement etc.) to engage the reader
 Provides an overview and other relevant information on the subject being written
about
 Includes the author’s personal opinion or feelings
 Finishes by summarizing the main point and restating the author’s opinion
The Article Creator
PART E: Conclusions
This part of the seminar will…
• Provide and overview of both Bridge and City & Guilds and their work here in the
Czech Republic
• Review and summarize the main points of the seminar
BRIDGE and GATE
THE EASY WAY TO ENGLISH
BRIDGE (B1 – B2)
UPPER SECONDARY
GYMNAZIUM
International Tests
Exam and Fun topics
Language Pages
Brain Teaser
CD (songs + articles)
Speaking Cards
Film + Tasks
Maps
E-book, Comic strips
Competitions
Facebook
GATE (A1 – A2)
UPPER PRIMARY
LOWER SECONDARY
International Tests
School and Fun Topics
Language Pages
Poster
Comic strips
CD (songs + articles)
Speaking Cards
Film + Tasks
Maps
Competitions
Facebook
CITY & GUILDS
CEFR
IESOL*
ISESOL**
A1 Breakthrough
Preliminary
Preliminary
A2 Waystage
Access
Access
B1 Threshold
Achiever
Achiever
B2 Vantage
Communicator
Communicator
C1 EOP
Expert
Expert
C2 Mastery
Mastery
Mastery
*International English for Speakers of Other Languages (listening, reading, writing)
*International Spoken English for Speakers of Other Languages (speaking)
CITY & GUILDS
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British examining and certification body providing 50% of the UK’s vocational
qualifications.
City & Guilds ČR organizes exams in English through 30 approved testing centres.
City & Guilds exams in English:
 General English exams: IESOL (written) + ISESOL (spoken)
 Business English exams: EBC (written) + SETB (spoken)
 Exams for Young learners: YESOL (written) + YSESOL (spoken)
CITY & GUILDS
Some important exam features…
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benchmarked to the CEFR (6 levels)
valid for life
recognized internationally
based on the communicative method
assessed by independent examiners in London (both the written and spoken exams)
flexible preparation materials
recognized by many Czech universities
http://www.cityandguilds.cz/index.php?cat=5-21-2
SOME ADVANTAGES…
BRIDGE
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Provides current material, and thus
doesn’t become ‘dated’ as a course book
can
Contains Czech-based content, bringing
more engagement and relevance to
students
Provides teachers with something new
and original that can be added to their
classroom on a monthly basis
CITY & GUILDS
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Is based on accessible content: topics,
themes and scenarios with ‘day-to-day’
applications
Offers a candidate-friendly structure:
students can sit separate exams at
different levels, offered on a monthly
basis
Allows teachers flexibility in terms of
preparation material: an ‘exam prep
course book’ is not required
IN SUMMARY…
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Exam preparation needs to be more than direct task practice; there are a multitude
of alternative methods than can be implemented to develop the required skills for
success.
As standarized exams (including Maturita) are all based on the use of similar testing
methods, a wide range of material can be utilized for preparation.
This material should be examined, adapted and implemented in order to not only
reinforce examine-relevant skills, but promote greater proficiency in general.
Bridge magazine contains a great variety of authentic materials that suit this purpose,
and provides diverse and stimulating content for students.
City & Guilds exams are likewise based on authentic material, and test a student’s
skills and aptitudes in a real-word context.
www.bridge-online.cz
www.cityandguilds.cz
www.cityandguildsenglish.com
THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME!

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