Three Design Patterns:
Adapter, Façade, Flyweight
C Sc 335
Rick Mercer
Adapter Design Pattern
Gang of Four state the intent of Adapter is to
Convert the interface of a class into another interface that
the clients expect. Adapter lets classes work together that
could not otherwise because of incompatible interfaces.
Adapter Design Pattern
Problem: An "off the shelf" component offers
compelling functionality that you would like to reuse,
but its "view of the world" is not compatible with the
philosophy and architecture of the new system
Adapter is about creating an intermediary abstraction
that translates, or maps, the old component to the new
Use Adapter when you need a way to create a new
interface for an object that does the right stuff but has
the wrong interface
Can be thought of as a Wrapper
Example Object Adapter
Before Java 5.0, we often adapted an ArrayList or
HashMap to have an easier to use collection
Used a Containment Relationship with a collection
using an ArrayList or HashMap instance variable
Put the cast in the method once instead of everywhere
Add Employees rather than Objects (type safe)
Method names then mean more to the clients
Employee getEmployeeWithID (String) good
Object getEmployeeWithID (String) bad
Object Adapters
Object Adapters rely on one object (the adapting
object) containing another (the adapted object)
A Stack class should have a Vector and use only
Vector’s add, get, and size methods (aka Wrapper)
Stack should not extend Vector:
Class Adapters
Class Adapters also come about by extending a class
or implementing an interface used by the client code
You may have used class adapters already
Adapt a song collection so it could be stored in a
ListModel object, which in turn was used by a
JList to show a graphical view of the list elements
JList needs the methods defined in the ListModel
interface: getSize() and getElementAt(int)
Adapt a model to the interface needed by JList
interface TableModel also adapts
A JTable requires a TableModel object that
represents the data (model)
JTable expects your model to have
getColumnCount, getRowCount, getValueAt
JTable uses these methods to display view
Need to adapt the model to what JTable expects
Adapt the model class to the interface expected by
JTable by implementing all 10 methods in the model
Adapt a collection into a TableModel
JTable can shows a list of Employees like this
EmployeeList adapted to TableModel
public class EmployeeList implements TableModel {
private ArrayList<Employee> data =
new ArrayList<Employee>();
public EmployeeList() {
data.add(new Employee("Devon", 40, 15.75, 3, "M"));
data.add(new Employee("Kim", 0, 12.50, 1, "S"));
data.add(new Employee("Chris", 35, 20.50, 2, "M"));
public void add(Employee employee) {
public Iterator<Employee> iterator() {
return data.iterator();
A TabelModel method helps adapt
// Adapt tax and pay methods to getValueAt(int column)
public Object getValueAt(int rowIndex, int columnIndex) {
Employee currentEmployee = data.get(rowIndex);
double totalTaxes =
+ currentEmployee.medicareTax()
+ currentEmployee.socialSecurityTax();
switch (columnIndex) {
case 0:
return currentEmployee.getName();
case 1:
return currentEmployee.grossPay();
case 2:
return totalTaxes;
case 3:
return data.get(rowIndex).grossPay() - totalTaxes;
return null;
A View, which is the Client
class EmployeeFrame extends JFrame {
public static void main(String[] args) {
new EmployeeFrame().setVisible(true);
private EmployeeList threeEmps;
public EmployeeFrame() {
threeEmps = new EmployeeList();
EmployeeList threeEmps = new EmployeeList();
setSize(300, 120);
JTable view = new JTable(threeEmps);
this.add(view, BorderLayout.CENTER);
Adapter Example & General Form
Client: EmployFrame
Adapter: JTable
Adaptee: EmployeeList
Other Adapter Classes
The WindowListener interface has seven methods
that you must implement
If you only need to respond to one window event,
you can extend WindowAdapter
and override whatever methods you need to
private class Terminator extends WindowAdapter {
// This is a WindowAdapter, methods do nothing
public void WindowClosing(WindowEvent e) {
// the other 6 methods are in WindowAdapter
// and they are set to do nothing
Besides WindowListener/WindowAdapter,
Java has lots of Listener/Adapter pairs
package java.awt.event
package java.awt.dnd
package javax.swing.event
Java Data Base Connectivity
(JDBC) Adapter
Write code in Java
using the methods
of the JDBC
The Adapter creates
SQL commands for
Picture from IBM
The Façade Design Pattern
Façade is closely related to Adapter
Provide a unified interface to a set of interfaces in
a System. Façade defines a higher level interface
that makes the subsystem easier to use GangOf4
Facade takes a "riddle
wrapped in an enigma
shrouded in mystery",
and interjects a wrapper
that tames the amorphous
and inscrutable mass of
A more UML-like view
Façade is used to
Create a simpler interface
Reduce the number of objects that a client deals with
Hide or encapsulate a large system
Decouples a client from a subsystem of components
Example of Façade
A CSc 436 student proposal to build a Façade
…creating an open source library to introduce people to
the power of the OpenCL API. Why?
Many people complain about the various intricacies of
the "boiler plate" code just to get things working. This
library will handle all this for the user so they can focus
on learning the techniques of OpenCL.
OpenCL™ is the first open, royalty-free standard for cross-platform, parallel
programming of modern processors found in personal computers, servers and
handheld/embedded devices.
Differences between
Adapter, Façade
Whereas Adapter reuses an old interface, Facade
defines a new interface
Adapter makes two existing interfaces (a bunch of
methods) work together as opposed to defining a
new one
Flyweight Design Pattern
Do we need one tree image or hundreds?
Flyweight Design Pattern
Do we need 40,621 String objects that equals
“University of Arizona”?
CSc127A University of Arizona CSC 335
Flyweight Design Pattern
Could each tile use the same terrain instance?
Flyweight Design Pattern
Problem: Constructing many objects is a relatively
slow operation for a computer to perform and/or it
takes CPU time and memory to store objects
In large programs we should try to reduce the
number of objects we create while the program is
Rumor has it that read will not read the image file if
it has already been created
File f = new File(“megaman.gif");
BufferedImage sprites = ImageIO.read(f);
Rumor has it that read will not read the image file if
it has already been created
Read is a Flyweight
String is a FlyWeight
Consider new String, ==, equals, and “a literal”
Which assertions pass?
String a = "horse";
String b = "horse";
assertTrue(a == b);
// Pass?
String c = new String("horse");
assertTrue(a == c);
// Pass?
assertTrue(b == c);
// Pass?
assertTrue(b.equals(c)); // Pass?
Code demo
Flyweight images so there is only one image for
each character to spell G A M E O V E R
Flyweights often have a HashMap
and check to see if the object exists
public class LetterFlyweight implements LetterInterface {
private static final HashMap<Character, LetterFlyweight>
myLetterTable = new HashMap<>();
private final Image myImage;
private final char myChar;
private LetterFlyweight(Image aLetter, char aChar) {
myImage = aLetter;
myChar = aChar;
public static LetterFlyweight getLetter(char key) {
if (myLetterTable.containsKey(key))
return myLetterTable.get(key);
else {
String path = key + ".JPG";

similar documents