AN OVERVIEW OF EAC -NYERERE CENTRE

Report
AN OVERVIEW OF EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY
A Presentation by Kaboha Barbara,
Program Assistant at
NYERERE CENTRE FOR PEACE
RESEARCH
INTRODUCTION
East African Community: Inter-government Organization
Comprising the Republics of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and
the United Republic of Tanzania. The EAC was originally founded in
1967, collapsed in 1977, and was revived 1999 when the treat for
its established was signed and it came into officially on July 7th
2000.
Causes for the collapse included;
Demands by Kenya for more seats than Uganda
Tanzania in decision-making organs,
Disagreements with Ugandan dictator Idi Amin,
The unequal economic systems of socialism in Tanzania among
others.
• The three member states lost over sixty years of co-operation and
the benefits of economies of scale.
• And each of the former member states had to embark, at great
expense and at lower efficiency, upon the establishment of
services and industries that had previously been provided at the
Community level.
•
•
•
•
EAC’s VISION:
To have a prosperous, competitive, secure and Politically united East
Africa’’
MISSION:
“To widen and deepen economic, Political, social and cultural
integration in order to improve the quality of life of the people of East
Africa through increased competitiveness, value added production,
trade and investment”
STAGES OF EAC INTEGRATION
• Customs Union; to enhance efficiency of production; A fully
fledged Customs Union was established on 1st January, 2010,
after five years of transitory implementation;
• Common Market; aims at promoting economic growth and
development; it provides for free movement of persons, capital,
goods, services, and the rights of residence and establishment. it
came into force on 1st July, 2010;
• Monetary Union; aim is to easy the economic transactions;
Negotiations for the Monetary Union have commenced and it is
expected that they may be concluded by early 2013;
• Political Federation; to enhance peace and security, good
governance and foreign policy the processes and initiatives to lay
its foundation are ongoing.
EAC ORGANS
1. The Summit; comprises of Heads of partner States and they
give the direction of realization of EAC goals and objectives.
2. The Council of Ministers; main decision making organ
made up of ministers responsible for EAC
Affairs/cooperation from Partner States.
3. The Coordinating Committee; comprises of permanent
secretaries and its responsible for regional cooperation and
coordination of activities of the sectoral committees.
4. Sectoral Committees; comprises of senior officials
responsible for monitoring of programs and their
implementation by directed by council and are elected by
coordination committee.
5. The East African Court of Justice; ensues that community
law is interpreted and implemented with in the treaty.
6. The EAC Secretariat; executive organ of the community
that ensures regulation and directives are adopted by
council are properly implemented.
7. East Africa Legislative Assembly; debates and approves
the EAC budget among others functions.
INSTITUTIONS OF EAC
• Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC) is responsible for
coordinating the sustainable development of the Lake Victoria
Basin shared by Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
• The East African Community Civil Aviation Safety and
Security Oversight Agency (CASSOA); responsible for ensuring
the development of safe and secure civil aviation system in the
region.
• Inter-university Council for EA(IUCEA); among its objectives is
to Facilitate networking, promoting competitiveness in higher
education among universities in East Africa and outside the region.
• Lake Victoria Fisheries organization(LVFO); aim is to
harmonize, develop and adopt conservation and management
measures for the sustainable utilization of living resources of Lake
Victoria to optimize socio-economic benefits from the basin for the
three Partner States.
• EA Development Bank(EADB); development finance institution
with an overriding objective of promoting development in the
Member States, EADB plays a threefold role of lender, advisor and
development partner. The Bank provides a range of products and
services which are tailor made for the region's development
requirements.
ORGANISATIONS WITH OBSERVER STATUS IN EAC
1. East African Business Council
2. East African Trade Union Council
3. East African Centre for Constitutional
Development( Kituo Cha Katiba)
4. East African Law Society
5. East African Book Development Association
6. East African Magistrates and Judges Association.
Political Federation Dept:
The objective of the PF department is to enhance Peace and
Security, Good Governance, Rule of Law, and respect of Human
Rights through the processes and initiatives to lay a foundation
for a Political Federation.
Political Federation Departments/units include;
1.
2
3
Political Affairs Dept: Promote Political Integration, and
develop policies and structures for the establishment of the
Political Federation;
International Relations Dept; enhance bilateral, multilateral
and inter EAC negotiations and fulfill statutory obligation to
regional and international organizations.
Peace and Security Dept; promote defense, peace and
security as a basis for good neighborliness. Where the EACNCPR is most incorporated.
PILLARS OF POLITICAL INTEGRATION AND LAYING THE FOUNDATION
Protection of human rights: i) Institutionalisation of the EAC Forum of National Human
Rights Commissions.
ii) EAC Regional Plan of Action includes activities for national
human rights commissions
iii) Development of the EAC Bill of Rights / model law for
protection of human rights. EALA has passed the EAC Bill of
Rights – a positive move if assented by Partner States.
iv) Enhancement of jurisdiction of the East African Court of
Justice to include Human Rights.
Anti-corruption, Ethics and Integrity:
i) Corruption is one of the non tariff barriers to regional
integration
ii) Marketing the EAC as a single tourist destination,investment
and trade zone; to negotiate as a bloc in international fora
calls for high levels of integrity, transparency and
accountability
iii) A protocol on preventing and combating corruption is under
LAYING THE FOUNDATION CONT..
development; it covers asset recovery and forfeiture, transfer of
criminals and criminal proceedings;
iv) Provides for extradition, judicial cooperation and mutual legal
assistance and establishes Financial Intelligence units
Promoting Democracy
i) Election is one of the key tools towards upholding good
governance and democracy BUT is also a source of expensive
conflicts within the Eastern African region.
Establishment of the EAC Forum of National Electoral Bodies.
iii) Constitute electoral support and Electoral Observation
missions to the Partner States’ elections - ongoing
iv) Development of EAC Policy on election observation and
Evaluation: ongoing
v) Study on reduction of electoral costs and sharing electoral
equipment : not yet commissioned
vi) Piloted a joint election observation mission with sister RECs –
led to wider coverage and more credible assessment –
innovative idea that could be developed further in consultation
with EALA
LAYING THE FOUNDATION CONT..
The Rule of Law and Access to Justice: i) The sector promotes enactment of just laws based on common
benchmarks; and
ii) facilitates effective administration of justice systems in a manner
that guarantees social justice, prevention of conflicts, peace and
political stability.
EAC Forum of Chief Justices:
i) Centrality of the judiciary especially on issues of governance,
upholding the rule of law, constitutionalism and access to justice.
ii) EAC Forum of Chief Justices is established
iii) Brings together all EAC Chief Justices to share experiences,
challenges and best practices for the region.
Annual EAC Conference on Good Governance –
Brings together all pillars of the Good Governance Programme
i) Inter-agency cooperation and capacity building – brings together all
sectors in the promotion of human rights, laws enforcement.
LAYING THE FOUNDATION CONT..
Research and Publication of EAC occasional papers –
To promote dialogue and continuous debate on core issues in political
integration. The 1st series was published and launched in 2011, while
the 2nd series are at final stages for publication.
EAC Dialogue on Political Integration
Brings together key stakeholders to discuss topical issues related to
Integration.
Regional meeting of Political Parties
A fundamental stakeholder in democracy and good governance.
Development of a protocol on good governance
Developing an EAC Specific Governance Review Mechanism – and the
anti-corruption assessment mechanism.
FOREIGN POLICY COORDINATION
The main objective of the sector is to initiate measures aimed at
developing a cohesive force in the management of the EAC’s
international relations through: i) harmonizing Partner States’ common foreign policies.
ii) Coordinate implementation of strategies establishing systematic
cooperation between the EAC and the International Community RECs, AU, EU, UN, etc.
iii) strengthening engagement of the Partner States Diplomatic
Missions in the pursuit of the Community’s objectives.
iv) support for East Africans to access jobs of influence in the
international system
v) mobilizing other countries and sub-regional/international
organizations to support EAC integration objectives.
vi) This cooperation is based on the MOU on foreign policy
coordination (now upgraded into a Protocol that is awaiting
ratification)
Peace and Security sector
a)
b)
c)
d)
Peace and Security is a prerequisite for the EAC integration and
economic development.
Cooperation in the Sector is currently guided by the Strategy for
Regional Peace and Security as adopted by the 13th Meeting of the
Council of Ministers
The Strategy identifies 15 areas of cooperation which the Peace
and Security Department has been activating on incremental
basis.
Cooperation in Policing including joint operations to curb motor
vehicle theft, disarmament, smuggling and exchange of offenders.
So far cooperation in the following areas have been activated: i) Counter terrorism; Policing and crime management
iii) Prisons and Correctional Services and Intelligence sharing;
iv) Disaster Preparedness and Management;
v) Refugee Management; among others
vii) Fighting small arms; Countering piracy;
ix) Countering cattle rustling.
Peace and Security sector Cont…
Development of an Early Warning Mechanism and Conflict
Prevention Management and Resolution are well advanced and
are awaiting the conclusion of the Peace and Security Protocol
to facilitate implementation.
At an advanced stage of conclusion is the Peace and Security
Protocol that besides facilitating the operationalization of the
Peace and Security Directorate, will also operationalise: -
i) framework on conflict prevention, management and
resolution (CPMR)
ii) Conflict Early warning
iii) EAC Panel of Eminent Persons to perform track two
diplomacy for the region.
PEACE AND SECURITY SECTOR CONT…
h) The EALA session passed a Bill of CPMR which once assented to by
the Partner States, the Department will develop modalities for its
implementation.
i) Cooperation arrangements are also being concluded with other
Regional Organizations with Peace and Security Mandate in the
Region to enhance synergies and avoid duplication
a)
CONFLICT PREVENTION MANAGEMENT AND RESOLUTION
(CPMR)
Potential conflicts within the Partner States and among the Partner
States require a mechanism for peaceful resolution of
disputes/conflicts;
b)
need for a mechanism under which EAC can respond to conflict
situations and participate in their resolution;
c)
Envisage establishment of a panel of eminent peace negotiators
and envoys to assist in peace negotiations in the region;
CHALLENGES
Regional integration is a political process; EAC is a political
organization whose decisions are political and require political
will to implement.
b) Political integration and governance issues are sensitive and
require even higher levels of political will.
c) Sovereignty - Political dynamics are dictated by the sovereign
nature of Nation States; need to cede some sovereignty to supra
national institutions at regional level.
d) Disparities in the Partner States’ governance structures and
practices, which is the foundation for a central decision making
mechanism, impact negatively on the integration agenda Decision
making by consensus means the pace of integration is dictated by
the slowest member.
f) Lack of a regional monitoring and follow up mechanism to enforce
implementation of decisions and policies by Partner States.
g) Absence of practical ramifications / penalties / sanctions for non
implementations of decisions / policies by the Partner States.
h) Absence of a specific Sectoral Council to handle Political Affairs
matters has contributed to slow pace in decision making for the
respective sector.
OPPORTUNITIES
a)
b)
c)
e)
f)
g)
EAC enjoys immense political will from the region’s political
leadership.
EAC has embarked on a holistic approach to integration covering
all sectors.
Most of the fears, concerns challenges to political federation have
been addressed by the Customs Union Protocol, the Common
Market Protocol and the negotiations towards the Monetary Union.
The EAC Partner States have in principle adopted the AU-NEPAD
Peer Review Mechanism for self assessment in governance matters.
Development of a suitable EAC Governance Assessment
Mechanism that takes into account the regional context to
consolidate governance in East Africa.
Key organs of the Community, pertinent to political integration are
already in place i.e. EALA and EACJ - need strengthening.
EAC- NYERERE CENTRE FOR PEACE RESEARCH
The centre is a functional unit with in the Political Federation
department and It was launched on 13th July 2007.
Its establishment was inspired by the legacy of peace by the Late
Mwalimu Nyerere, former President of the United Republic of
Tanzania. The choice to host this Centre in Arusha was inspired by
the city’s history as a hub for peace negotiations in the region
Vision:
• Is to become a global center of excellence for peace and conflict
research.
Mission:
• Is to build capacity in conflict prevention, mitigation and
Resolution through research and training.
Overall Objective
• The overall objective of the Centre is to provide the EAC with
relevant and timely research, training and information that
contribute to deepening and widening of integration especially in
areas under cooperation in political matters including peace and
security, good governance and foreign policy coordination.
OBJECTIVES OF NCPR
1.
2.
3.
4.
To promote peace and security as a means to further regional
integration and development and establish an onsite research
facility in support of: regional peace and conflict resolution
and regional capacity building.
To undertake research on common policies for the
management of refuges. Early warning systems and
development of appropriate mechanism for conflict
management and resolution.
To establish a regional facility for research and data
collection, training and information dissemination in the
peace and security sector.
To develop projects associated with the strategies identified by
the parties to promote the peaceful resolution of disputes and
conflict amongst the Partner States.
•
•
•
•
•
•
ACTIVITIES OF NCPR
It carries out research; in areas of peace and security matters.
Capacity building; training programs in peace and conflict
management, good governance and foreign policy.
Students exchange programs/internship with Arcadia to educate
and sensitize students on EAC integration.
PARTNERSHIP WITH ARCADIA
EAC-NCPR in collaboration with Arcadia University offer
Undergraduate and Graduate students exchange programmes on
Conflicts, Peace and Security in East Africa; Human Rights in
Africa.
NCPR and Arcadia offers scholarships to EAC students to attend
the exchange programmes at the Secretariat covering program
related expenses and tuition fees.
These programmes run three times in a year, Early February to
May under graduates, June to July-graduates, August to
December-undergraduates.
END

similar documents