The Post-2015 Development Agenda: An Assessment of the EAC Position and Preparedness for the Post-2015 Development Agenda Charles Lwanga-Ntale & Jason Braganza Development Initiatives Entebbe, Uganda, September 2014 15 years ago... We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women and children from the abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently subjected. We are committed to making the right to development a reality for everyone and to freeing the entire human race from want. United Nations Millennium Declaration, New York, 6 to 8 September 2000 What problem is the EAC seeking to address in the first place? Five specific issues on EAC preparedness for post-2015 (1) Understanding the nature & magnitude of the challenge ahead (2015 – 2030); (2) Adequacy of financial and other resources for implementing the SDGs in EAC (3) Integration of existing and future visions and strategies; (4) Developing mechanisms for tracking change and monitoring progress; (5) Participation & building a citizen-EAC compact What the 2013 MDG Report says (about Africa) Arica’s Traffic light progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (2014) MDG 1 – MDG 2 – MDG 3 – MDG 4 – MDG 5 – MDG 6 – MDG 7 – MDG 8 – Eradicate Achieve universal Promote gender Reduce child Improve Combat Ensure Global extreme primary equality and mortality maternal HIV/AIDS, TB, environmenta partnership poverty and education empower health malaria and l sustainability for hunger women other diseases development. Poverty reduction lags behind growth Inequality is undermining efforts to reduce poverty Attending primary school a norm, but the quality of education is poor Progress toward gender parity is encouraging Child & maternal deaths very high Some progress on HIV/AIDS & TB but more needed Mixed progress on environmental sustainability Food insecurity is a recurring challenge The EAC picture in 2014... 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Poverty headcount at US$1.25 (% of population) Burundi (2006) Kenya (2005) Rwanda (2011) Tanzania (2007) Uganda (2009) Initial questions Does the EAC have a position on the post2015 agenda? Is the regional body prepared to engage with the (post-2015) agenda? Enhancing understanding, ownership and uptake of the SDG agenda Many constituencies at national and regional level in the EAC are still not familiar with the SDGs, hence they are yet to fully own them. Not all goals are communicated in simple, accessible and easily understandable language SDGs not incorporated in EAC treaty, strategies or plans. Limited understanding & capacities in new areas e.g. climate change and environment Financing the post-2015 EAC development agenda Little is known about the most suitable mix of financing modalities & instruments – and likely changes over time. Efforts still limited to increasing domestic & external resources not focusing on understanding, identifying and applying different financial resources for maximum efficiency, effectiveness & sustainability. Integrating and harmonising visions, goals and strategies EAC has no sub-regional vision or strategy on SDGs; but EAC member countries are at various stages of defining future visions – which still do not “speak to each other” The visions/strategies are an opportunity for the EAC to integrate development perspectives Needed: responsive strategies & institutional structures Also needed: legal mechanism to provide a framework for better coordination of national and regional entities better alignment of planning and implementation Mechanisms for tracking progress Tracking progress key part for EAC post-2015 agenda Good data & capacity to analyse are essential But EAC countries are not using similar standards, approaches or data collection frameworks. Sub-regional mechanisms and capacities are needed Building a citizen-EAC compact EAC citizens have low level of confidence in governments Deeper integration of EAC region and cooperation have produced some positive macro-economic effects e.g. growth in internal trade, but the changes are not impacting well on the poorer sections of the population The citizen-EAC compact will to ensures citizens are: – are able to influence the region-wide political process; – have their voices, especially those of the very poorest, effectively represented; – are engaged in activities and processes that shape and emanate from the EAC (so that they do not see such processes as being “just a government thing”); – influence the content of what is being developed in the EAC; and, – have stronger connection with those who represent them in national, sub-regional and global development processes Conclusions (1) SDGs are an essential tool for shaping the post-2015 development agenda – a major achievement for the world development community. However, the key test will be in how individual countries and the EAC translate the goals to real actions. By participating in the discussions leading to the outcome document the EAC already has already “supported” the SDGs. However, the readiness of the regional body for the post-2015 development agenda is still questionable In the meantime more is needed for the EAC and member states to demonstrate how in the regional context the proposed SDGs would: – Help to focus actions on an integrated local-to-global development agenda; – Serve as a key driver for sustainably addressing poverty in the region; – Contribute to developing a clear set of priorities, actions and tools for monitoring progress; – Innovatively contribute to directly tackling poverty, sustaining positive change and prevent future impoverishment; and, – Help work towards realisation of a transformative agenda for the region Finally ..... To achieve these objectives the EAC needs to develop means of implementation, and the process for achieving this must recognise the importance of openness and adopting a participatory approach. Also, as the SDGs begin to take shape, they should continue to be viewed as a foundation for future actions not as the end point greater ambition is required. Further, East Africa’s impressive economic performance should ensure the gains from growth leverage progress on the SDGs In conclusion ... moving this agenda forward will require more than just increased awareness and domesticating the global agenda to revolutionising data, establishing monitoring mechanisms, and linking economic, social and physical development goals (a political question which EAC policy makers and technocrats will have to confront.