By: Ryan Gareau and Tracy Huckell ECUR 898.3 May 2013 Everyone belongs in our schools “All individuals, regardless of their differences, must be regarded as an unusual gift, not a burden, to the broader social structure. People must see that differences do not have to be fixed or cured. Instead, each individual’s gifts must be discovered, accepted and shaped.” (BCASC, 2002, p. 3) What is Inclusion? Concept Attainment Activity Examples and Non-Examples of Inclusive Education Inclusive Education is: A human right - the Saskatchewan Human Rights Code states that all students have the right to be educated in a regular classroom in their neighborhood school with the right supports in place to succeed. A focus on ability rather than the disability – it rejects the ‘defective’ student model Individualized instruction that is carefully planned to attend to the specific needs of the student without interfering with the feeling of membership and belonging in the classroom Inclusive Education is: Classroom teachers accepting responsibility as the primary educator for all students in their classroom – not the EA’s or SST’s student Needs based assessment where programming is based on the skills and supports required rather than a label/diagnosis – eg ASD diagnosis Inclusive Education: Leads to better life outcomes for students with disabilities Is intended to benefit all students, not just those with exceptionalities or disabilities Is every child receiving an education in the most enabling environment. It may not mean physical inclusion in a regular classroom all the time if there are other environments better suited to a particular learning goal or self-regulation (physiotherapy, authentic life skills experiences, sensory breaks) Inclusive Schools: Have the commitment and the capacity to educate all children who live in the community. Justify the ‘exclusion’ not the ‘inclusion’ of students – inclusion is the default/norm Identify that when a student requires pull out from their regular classroom to teach specific skills that requires a different environment, it should be for as brief as possible with the goal of reintegrating the student back into the regular classroom as soon as possible Inclusive Schools Use Student First Language: Say: Person with a disability Child with autism Student with an intellectual or cognitive disability The boy with cerebral palsy The girl with the hearing impairment The student with a learning disability The child with a visual impairment Not: The disabled person The autistic child The mentally retarded student The crippled boy The deaf girl The learning disabled student The blind child What’s Wrong with Traditional Special Education? It fails to produce results – students who experience segregated special education are not prepared for fulfilling lives in their community Students with disabilities don’t develop the skills needed to be part of their community and society when they become adults – growing up with and interacting with peers does this Typically developing students do not develop a sense of empathy and acceptance for those with disabilities when they are not educated together with numerous opportunities to interact together Diversity should be: Expected Respected Planned for Honored Valued Normal is just a setting on your dryer! Benefits to those with disabilities: Increased peer connections, social networking, and friends Exposure to rich classroom curriculum and reflective discussion with a variety of peers Higher academic outcomes Authentic problem solving and critical thinking opportunities Engagement in a variety of circumstances and settings Increased and authentic experiences to practice social skills necessary for life Increased community involvement and acceptance Greater quality of life Benefits to Typically Developing Peers: Research shows that typically developing students do better, both academically and socially, as a result of inclusion based policies and teaching practices. More effective instruction as teachers learn to differentiate for their various learners with a student centered approach Decreased stereotyping of disabilities and more acceptance of each individual as someone with specific strengths and needs Development of the ability to see the person before the disability Development of appreciation for diversity in society through authentic experiences, and adult guidance and role modelling Development of empathy through interaction with peers who have disabilities in a variety of contexts Inclusive Education Canada: Video Bruce Uditsky, CEO, Alberta Association of Community Living Christy Waldner, Saskatchewan parent Effective Inclusive Leaders: Provide a welcoming, positive and supportive climate for students and families regardless of ability, background etc. Model and promote inclusion by interacting with all students and encouraging their participation in school and extra-curricular activities Educate their staff on what inclusion is and what it is not Work collaboratively at the school level to ensure staff receive the training and support required to make inclusion successful Share their journey to encourage other administrators and schools to rise to the challenge of providing an inclusive environment for all Inclusive Video: Basketball Game – demonstrates why all students need to be given every opportunity to be included with peers Fair is not Equal – Ensuring the Right Supports are in Place SK Ministry of Education Tiers of Support for Inclusive Schools School and Classroom Climate A place where everyone supports and is supported by peers in the course of having his or her needs met Staff members and students feel welcome in all classrooms and physical settings of the school Students with disabilities have the opportunity to interact with other students in classrooms, hallways, lunchrooms, gym, etc All students have the opportunity to participate in the full range of the schools activities with support and services as needed Transitions are planned for and supported (Pre-K to K, elementary to secondary, secondary to work/life) to ensure what is working well will continue in the next environment, and to proactively address challenges and supports required for a successful transition Attitudes & Skills Required of Staff: Cooperation and collaboration Flexibility and adaptability A desire to continually improve and for life long learning Empathy and a student centered focus Growth mindset Growth versus Fixed Mindset Growth – success comes from hard work, teachers can override student profiles, teachers need to set high goals while providing appropriate levels of support, finding what makes school work for a student, if the student fails our system has failed in meeting their needs Fixed – success comes from being smart, genetics and environment determine what a student can do, some kids are smart and some aren’t, teachers can’t override student profiles What message do you give your students? What about the teachers in your school? Effects of Student Mindset Growth – accept feedback more readily, embrace challenge, grow more academically, persist longer, work harder Fixed – get angry with feedback, resist challenge, give up faster, reject hard work as it hasn’t paid off in the past, grow less academically Key Message from Teachers for Student Success Your effort predicts your success If you work hard and smart, you will grow in the required knowledge, understandings and skills. If you continue this pattern, there is no reason you can’t achieve and even exceed goals The way we work in this class will help you see the link between your effort and your success I believe in you and will work with you to support your success “It’s not how good you are, it’s how good you want to be.” (Tomlinson, Personal Communication, 2013) Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Schools are physically accessible for all individuals (doorways, ramps, washrooms) and all areas can be accessed safely and as independently as possible Students with disabilities are physically integrated in the classroom seating arrangement – not placed at the back of the classroom with an EA Classrooms are designed proactively to meet the universal and diverse needs of all students: Furniture, equipment, and work stations are accessible for students with physical, learning, and sensory disabilities Alternate seating options are available – Zuma rocker, bean bag chair, Hokki stool, standing frame etc. Clutter free classroom design supports ideal regulation for learning – lighting, acoustics, visual schedules, quiet space within the classroom, white noise options Multi-Disciplinary Teams Provide a continuum of supports Increase learning outcomes for students Work collaboratively toward common goals for students through development and implementation of Inclusion and Intervention Plans (IIPs) Work under principles of trust, commitment, equality, advocacy, communication, professional competence, and respect Move beyond parental involvement to parent partnerships – parent input is valued as part of the team School Team Members – Classroom Teacher, Student Support Teacher, Educational Assistant, Administrator Division Team – Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP), Occupational Therapist (OT), Psychologist, School Counsellor Community Partners – Community Living, Parkland Early Childhood Intervention Program (ECIP), Sunrise Children’s Therapy Program, Mental Health, Social Services, Partners in Employment, Cognitive Disability Strategy Community and Parent Involvement Parents have input in the planning and goal setting process for their child Teachers recognize that students have social, emotional, and academic needs to address Students and parents are invited to share their suggestions and recommendations in order to create an inclusionary plan All students are supported and feel a sense of belonging in their community Inclusion and Differentiated Instruction Teachers focus on strengths and capabilities of all students Teachers recognize the effort as well as the ability of their students High, reasonable expectations are set for all students and maintained in the classroom Instructional delivery methods in the classroom use a variety of formats and rely on a variety of senses (multi-sensory) Teachers give students a sense of empowerment over their own learning Differentiated Instruction Respectful engaging tasks that develop deep understanding of essential concepts Flexible groupings – according to interest, readiness, learning preferences Students work in teams that have complementary skills and generate synergy allowing members to go beyond their limitations, and to help each other reach their potential Competition against self rather than one another Differentiating Instruction Teaching up with appropriate supports/scaffolding in place Must be solidly rooted in curriculum and informed by ongoing formative assessment Teachers adapt content to fit individual needs by concentrating on pacing of instruction, task analysis, and scaffolding required for success Several avenues are provided for students to accomplish the same goal Differentiation is based on: Readiness – student’s position relative to the specific task at hand; not reflective of overall ability, IQ, or potential Interests – ignite curiosity or passion, are culturally or experientially relevant Learning Profile – encourages student to work in a preferred manner (diagrams, stories, skits, songs etc.) Reading Disability Simulation We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like yours enq zine. Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work qogaqhys py qasign. Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA, Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zess-broquceq rasuze. So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz. Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze. Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain. Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain. Assistive Technology Increases the functional capabilities of students with disabilities Examples: Laptop/ipad with Word Q/iwordQ or speech to text capabilities such as Dragon Naturally Speaking Proloquo 2 Go or Big Mac recorder for augmentative communication Fidgets, weighted or pressure vests, alternate seating for regulation – Hokki stool, Zuma rocker, hand and mouth tools Wheelchairs, standing frames, bean bag chairs Effective Utilization of EA Support EA proximity – too close can be a barrier for peers and teachers to get to know and work with the student requiring support. This causes segregation in the classroom, interference with peer interactions, unnecessary dependence on adults, a feeling of being stigmatized/labelled. Supports are most effective when they are natural and do not set the student apart from the group EAs should not replace the teacher as the main person in charge of the education of a child with exceptionalities TEAM Orientation Resource for EAs and Classroom Teachers Educational Assistants should: Help peers understand how to relate to the student with a disability and how to provide peer support when appropriate Help the child interact with others to make friends Provide and reinforce social skills training – this allows authentic skills practice in a variety of environments Assist other students in the classroom so the EA is viewed as a classroom support rather than a certain student’s assistant Supervise the rest of the class at times while the teacher works with students who have more intensive needs Fostering Independence Independence has a strong link to self-esteem EAs and teachers need to provide scaffolding for students to develop skills to become as independent as possible – never do for a student what they can do for themselves Challenges must be at an appropriate level – too difficult leads to frustration and too easy leads to a lack of growth Gradual release of support – prompting from hand over hand, to verbal, to visual, and then fading supports for independence Successful Inclusion Depends on having the right attitude, which begins with the belief that all students with disabilities can learn, want to learn, and have a right to be fully included in their neighborhood schools. Is based on a school system that supports and values all students The right attitude determines whether a student is truly included or merely a spectator Inclusion is More Than 9 to 3 Video Produced in partnership between the University of Saskatchewan and the Saskatchewan Association for Community Living 2005 – 15 minutes long Don’t Laugh at Me – Mark Wills Don’t Laugh At Me Classroom Resources Link The goal of Don’t Laugh at Me is to support you in creating a caring, compassionate, and cooperative classroom and school environment. Since young people learn by doing, this guide focuses on giving them the experience of learning in a caring community—a classroom characterized by: • a healthy expression of feelings • caring, compassion, and cooperation • the creative resolution of conflicts • an appreciation of differences Don’t Laugh at Me addresses issues of the heart—as well as the mind. Through the song, CD, and video, the project harnesses the power of music and art to transform, inspire, and build skills in students. The activities in this guide are designed to raise awareness, explore feelings, connect young people to their inner selves and one another, provide important tools for you as a teacher, fulfill curriculum standards, and build essential skills. Additionally, these activities will help you to empower your students to become important catalysts for change in your school and community—so that the circle of caring widens and an increasing number of young people can share in the experience of a caring community. SK Ministry of Education Resources to Support Meaningful Programming & Inclusion: Teachers Make the Difference: Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities at Middle and Secondary Levels – Living Document 2009 Planning for Students with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Teaching Students with Autism Teaching Students with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities Teaching Students with Visual Impairments Creating Opportunities for Students with Intellectual or Multiple Disabilities Caring and Respectful Schools: Toward School PLUS Alternative Education Programs: Policy, Guidelines and Procedures Functional Integrated Programs: Policy Guidelines and Procedures Presentation References: British Columbia Association for Community Living. (2002). Making the case for inclusive education in BC: Everyone belongs in our schools. New Westminster, BC: BCACL Causton-Theoharis, J.N. (2009). The golden rule of providing support in inclusive classrooms: Support others as you would wish to be supported. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(2), 36-43. Dieker, L. (2007). Demystifying secondary inclusion: Powerful school-wide & classroom strategies. Port Chester, NY: Dude Publishing. Porter, G. L. (2008). Making Canadian schools inclusive: A call to action. Education Canada, 58(2), 62-66. Presentation References: Saskatchewan Association for Community Living. (2010). Navigating the system: An advocacy handbook for parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Saskatoon, SK: SACL Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit. (2012). Module one: Multi-disciplinary teams. Saskatoon, SK: SELU Saskatchewan Learning. (2001). Creating opportunities for students with intellectual or multiple disabilities. Regina, SK: Province of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. (2010). Impact assessment: Identification of students requiring intensive supports. Regina, SK: Province of Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan Ministry of Education. (2006). Inclusive education: A review of the research. Regina, SK: Province of Saskatchewan. Presentation References: Shanker, S. (2013). Calm, alert, and learning. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada. Smith, T.E., Polloway, E.A., Patton, J.R., Dowdy, C.A., McIntyre, L.J., Francis, G.C. (2009). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada. Specht, J. (2013). School inclusion: Are we getting it right? Education Canada, 53(2), http://www.ceaace.ca/education-canada/article/school-inclusion. Tomlinson, C. (1999). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, J. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction and understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.