Martin Ginsberg`s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn`t Call the Police”

Report
September 17, 2014 Session:
Freshman Composition
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Revised Course Schedule
Analysis and Discussion of Readings
Lecture notes: Characteristics of a Descriptive Essay
“Once More to the Lake” by E.B. White – read in class
Take in-class quiz “Once More to the Lake” by E.B. White
Discussion of Assignment Requirements for Essay #2:
Descriptive Essay
• Brainstorming Session for Essay
Bring Textbook 75 Readings Plus EVERY
Class
What to Expect Today
• Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s
Victory”
• Langston Hughes “Salvation”
• Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw
Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
Background on author:
• Maya Angelou was born in 1928
• Known as a celebrated poet, memoirist,
novelist, educator, dramatist, producer,
actress, historian, filmmaker, and civil
rights activist.
• I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1970)
was published to international acclaim and
enormous popular success
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou
Awards/Honors:
• Presidential Medal of Arts in 2000
• Lincoln Medal in 2008
• Received 3 Grammy Awards
• Has received over 50 honorary degrees
• President Clinton requested that she compose a poem to
read at his inauguration in 1993
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
Background on short story:
• Grew up and went through difficult and painful experiences
in the state of Arkansas where her family store was.
• In this "Grandmother's Victory" essay, Angelou talks about
her childhood experience and the time she spent with her
grandmother.
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
Discuss in Pairs – write down your answers
What do you think is the theme of this story?
What details does Angelou use to create this obviously
unflattering picture of "po whitetrash children"?
Compare 10 year old Maya’s response to the children to the
Grandmother’s response
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
What do you think is the theme of this story?
Potential responses:
How to deal with the issue of racism – broader theme –
it is not the situation, it is how you deal with the
situation that matters
Grandmother teaches Maya to ignore the harassment and not to sink to their level. If
you lose your cool and start fighting back, the problem will never go away. The best
method of defense is to ignore the harassment and the harassers will lose interest.
Maintaining personal integrity, strength of character and core
values in the face of challenge is victory
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
What do you think is the theme of this story?
“Proof that with strength of character we can rise above
the world, no matter how vile and stupid it may sometimes
be"
Analysis of Readings
Review Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
Turn To A Partner
What details does Angelou use to create this obviously unflattering
picture of "po whitetrash children"? Jot down several words or phrases.
Po White Trash Children
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
What details does Angelou use to create this obviously unflattering
picture of "po whitetrash children"?
Po White Trash Children
Crawled over the shelves and into the potato
and onion bins, twanging all the time in their
sharp voices like cigar-box guitars
Greasy, uncolored hair hung down,
uncombed with a grim finality.
Grimy, snotty-nosed;
scruffy
Dirt of the girls’ cotton dresses continued on
their legs, feet, arms, and faces to make
them all of a piece.
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
10 Year Old Maya’s Response
Grandmother’s Response
rage, indignation, humiliation,
helplessness
“I wanted to throw a handful of black
pepper in their faces, throw lye on
them, to scream that they were dirty,
scummy peckerwoods”
“ I thought about the rifle behind the
door….”
Analysis of Readings
Maya Angelou “Grandmother’s Victory”
10 Year Old Maya’s Response
Grandmother’s Response
rage, indignation, humiliation,
helplessness
once the girls leave, young Maya realizes that her grandmother has
achieved something “Something had happened out there, which I
couldn't completely understand ... Whatever the contest had been
out front, I knew Momma had won" (26-27).
Angelou claims that her ten-year-old self could not fully
understand what had happened, though she did understand that
there had been a contest of wills and that her grandmother had
won it.
Analysis of Readings
Langston Hughes “Salvation”
Background on the story:
"Salvation"--which appears in our Essay Sampler: Models
of Good Writing (Part Three)--is an excerpt from The Big
Sea (1940), an autobiography by Langston Hughes (19021967).
Analysis of Readings
Langston Hughes “Salvation”
Background on Hughes:
• Poet, novelist, playwright, short
story writer, and newspaper
columnist
• Best known for his insightful and
imaginative portrayals of AfricanAmerican life from the 1920s
through the 1960s
Analysis of Readings
The first sentence of "Salvation"--"I was saved from
sin when I was going on thirteen"--proves to be an
example of irony. After reading the essay, how might
we reinterpret this opening sentence?
(a) As it turns out, Hughes was actually only ten
years old when he was saved from sin.
(b) Hughes is fooling himself: he may think that he
was saved from sin when he was a boy, but his lie in
church shows that he did not want to be saved.
(c) Although the boy wants to be saved, in the end he
only pretends to be saved "to save further trouble."
(d) The boy is saved because he stands up in church
and is led to the platform.
(e) Because the boy has no mind of his own, he
simply imitates the behavior of his friend Westley.
Analysis of Readings
The first sentence of "Salvation"--"I was saved from
sin when I was going on thirteen"--proves to be an
example of irony. After reading the essay, how might
we reinterpret this opening sentence?
(c) Although the boy wants to be saved, in the end he
only pretends to be saved "to save further trouble."
Analysis of Readings
Who has told young Langston about what he will see
and hear and feel when he is saved?
(a) his friend Westley
(b) the preacher
(c) the Holy Ghost
(d) his Auntie Reed and a great many old people
(e) the deacons and the old women
Analysis of Readings
Who has told young Langston about what he will see
and hear and feel when he is saved?
(d) his Auntie Reed and a great many old people
My aunt taught me when you were saved you saw
a light, and something happened to you
inside!...She said you could see and hear and
feel Jesus in your soul (11).
Analysis of Readings
Why does Westley get up to be saved?
(a) He has seen Jesus.
(b) He is inspired by the prayers and songs of the
congregation.
(c) He is frightened by the preacher's sermon.
(d) He wants to impress the young girls.
(e) He tells Langston that he is tired of sitting on the
mourner's bench.
Analysis of Readings
Why does Westley get up to be saved?
(e) He tells Langston that he is tired of sitting on the
mourner's bench.
Analysis of Readings
Why does young Langston wait so long before
getting up to be saved?
(a) He wants to get revenge against his aunt for
making him go to church.
(b) He is terrified of the preacher.
(c) He is not a very religious person.
(d) He wants to see Jesus, and he is waiting for Jesus
to appear.
(e) He is afraid that God will strike him dead.
Analysis of Readings
Why does young Langston wait so long before
getting up to be saved?
(d) He wants to see Jesus, and he is waiting for Jesus
to appear.
“I wanted to see him, but nothing happened to me.
Nothing! I wanted something to happen to me, but
nothing happened.”
Analysis of Readings
At the end of the essay, why was Langston crying?
Analysis of Readings
At the end of the essay, why was Langston crying?
“I was really crying because I couldn’t bear to tell
her that I had lied, I had deceived everybody in the
church, that I hadn’t seen Jesus, and that I didn’t
believe there was a Jesus any more, since he didn’t
come to help me”
Analysis of Readings
Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
Facts about the Case
• Kitty Genovese was walking home from work in Queens, N.Y. on March
13, 1964
• Winston Moseley stabbed Kitty twice in the back
• She screamed “Oh My God, he stabbed me. Help me!”
• Her cry was heard by neighbors
• Mosely chased her down and stabbed her again. As she
lay dying, he raped her and stole $49 from her
• On Monday, June 15, 1964, Moseley was sentenced to
death
Analysis of Readings
Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
Facts about the Article
• Martin Gansberg wrote an article on March 27, 1964, published in the New
York Times, two weeks after the murder with the headline “Thirty-Seven
Who Saw the Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
• Quote in the article that stood out: - neighbor telling the police
“I didn’t want to get involved”
Analysis of Readings
Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
1. Gansburg's article first appeared in 1964-- how do you think the article, and
the events it describes, would be received by readers if it were published
today? Explain your rationale.
2. How would you explain the witnesses' abstention from action in calling the
police, based on the evidence in the text and your understanding of human
behavior?
3. What is Gansburg's purpose in writing the piece and who is his audience?
Is he writing towards a bias or opinion? Provide textual evidence.
4. What effect do the descriptions and dialogue have on the overall message
the text delivers? Are there any words, phrases, ideas that stood out to you
while reading the text? Write them down. Explore why they had an impact.
Discussion – Find a Partner
Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
Psychological Research
• Diffusion of Responsibility
• Bystander Effect
Contrary to common expectations, larger numbers of bystanders decrease the
likelihood that someone will step forward and help a victim. The reasons
include the fact that onlookers see that others are not helping either, that
onlookers believe others will know better how to help, and that onlookers feel
uncertain about helping while others are watching.
Analysis of Readings
Martin Ginsberg’s “37 Who Saw Murder Didn’t Call the Police”
It Happened Again
According to The New York Times, in an article dated December 28, 1974, ten
years after the murder, 25-year-old Sandra Zahler was beaten to death early
Christmas morning in an apartment of the building that overlooked the site of
the Genovese attack. Neighbors again said they heard screams and "fierce
struggles" but did nothing.
Analysis of Readings
an essay that describes something or someone by
appealing to the reader’s senses: sight, sound, touch,
smell and taste.
What is a Descriptive
Essay ?
• Select a subject (for example, a person, place or thing)
• Brainstorm details about the subject
• Take notes on sights, sounds, smells
• Keep in mind your are painting a picture for the reader,
using descriptive devices and the senses
• Create a thesis statement that informs the reader who or
what you are describing and what insight or meaning you
have drawn from that subject.
Steps for Structuring a
Descriptive Essay
1. Select dominant details (select only the details that
support the dominant impression – your thesis
statement)
2. Organize details in paragraphs
3. Draw a logical conclusion
Steps for Structuring a
Descriptive Essay
• Use descriptive words
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Do not use vague words or generalities (such as good, nice, bad, or
beautiful). Be specific and use sensory, descriptive words
(adjectives).
• Provide sensory details:
• Smells that are in the air (the aroma of freshly brewed coffee)
• Sounds (traffic, honking horns)
• Sights (“The sun scattered tiny diamonds across dew-covered grass as
it peeked out from beyond the horizon.”)
• Touch (“The texture of the adobe hut’s walls resembled coarse
sandpaper.”)
• Taste: sweet, sour, salty, bitter, tart (“Giant goose bumps formed on
my tongue when I accidently bit into a sliver of lemon.”)
Steps for Structuring a
Descriptive Essay
Senses
Descriptive word and phrases
Emotion
Orange is joy. optimistic, sociable and extroverted
Taste:
Taste
Orange is the taste of pumpkin pie on Thanksgiving
Smell
Orange is the smell of citrus fruits growing on Florida
trees
Sound
Orange is the sound of a tabby cat meowing
Touch
Orange can be smooth, cool, and round in the palm of
your hand or give the sensation of heat like flickers in
the flame of fire.
Sight
Orange is the color of saffron, carrots, pumpkins and
apricots. It is the color of sunshine, fire and harvest. It is
between red and yellow on the spectrum of light
Example Descriptive Words - Color
Telling:
The empty room smelled stale and was
devoid of furniture or floor covering;
the single window lacked curtains or
blinds of any kind.
Showing:
The apartment smelled of old cooking
odors, cabbage, and mildew; our
sneakers squeaked sharply against the
scuffed wood floors, which reflected a
haze of dusty sunlight from the one
cobwebbed, gritty window.
Show Not Tell
Simile
Using the words such as “like” or “as” when comparing.
Example: A ride to North Hutchinson Island is like a flight to a
Caribbean getaway.
Metaphor
Implying a comparison between two things that are essentially different.
Use Figurative Language
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Time is a thief.
He has a heart of gold.
His head was spinning with ideas.
John is a real pig when he eats.
Authority is a chair, it needs legs to stand up.
Her home was a prison.
Life is a journey.
You are my sunshine.
Metaphors - Examples
Personification
Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects.
Example: The truck, covered with mud and love bugs, cried
out for a wash.
Use Figurative Language
“The fog tiptoes into the streets. It walks like a great cat
through the air and slowly devours the city.”
"Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags and
throws away food."
"The Duke's moustache was rising and falling like seaweed
on an ebb-tide."
What type?
“The fog tiptoes into the streets. Personification
It walks like a great cat through the air and slowly devours
the city.” Simile
"Memory is a crazy woman that hoards colored rags and
throws away food.“ Metaphor
"The Duke's moustache was rising and falling like seaweed
on an ebb-tide.”Simile
What type?
With a Partner – Complete Figurative Language
Activity Sheet
Give it a Try - Figurative
Language
The following guidelines should help you maintain a
formal writing voice in your essays.
• Do not use first-person pronouns ("I," "me," "my,"
"we," "us," etc.)
• Example
I think that this character is confused.
This character is confused.
(The second sentence is less wordy, sounds more formal, and conveys a more
confident tone.)
• "One," "the reader," "readers," "the viewer," or something similar sometimes can
be used effectively in place of first-person pronouns in formal papers, but be
careful not to overuse these expressions.
• Avoid the use of contractions.
• Avoid colloquialism and slang expressions.
Formal Voice
"Once More to the Lake"
• essay first published in Harper’s Magazine in 1941 by
author E.B. White
• chronicles his pilgrimage back to a lakefront resort,
Belgrade Lakes, Maine, he visited as a child
As you read:
Notice the sensory details, figurative language, and theme of
the work
Let’s Read and Analyze a
Descriptive Essay
• Read “Once More to the Lake”
• Complete the “Once More to the Lake” Quiz
Let’s Read and Analyze a
Descriptive Essay
Your task:
Essay 2: Analysis of a Photograph or Painting
• For this essay you need to describe and analyze a photograph
or a painting of your own choosing in an essay of at least 800
words.
Pass out the following Handouts:
• Assignment Sheet for Descriptive Essay
• Brainstorming Sheet for Descriptive Essay
• Vivid Sensory Adjective Sheets
Assignment: Write a
Descriptive Essay
Let’s Look at a Sample Painting and Brainstorm How
We’d Pre-Write a Descriptive Essay – The Scream by
Edward Munch
Sight
Color
Interpretation
Red and orange
"red" sky "tongues of
fire"
Blue and black
“bluish black" fjord
Brush strokes
Swirling, whirling
Subject – What
details do you see?
Unclear whether it is a
man or woman
Sense
Interpretation
Sound – Does it make
noise? Does it bring up a
memory involving
sound?
Wailing, crying
Emotions: Anxiety, Isolation, Fear
Physical and mental suffering
Facts about Munch
• In his diaries, the artist Edvard Munch
admits that he struggled with insanity
not only on a personal level during his
life, but also through his family.
• His sister was hospitalized for insanity
at the time The Scream was painted in
1893a
• slaughterhouse was within earshot of
the the spot illustrated in The Scream
painting
Munch’s personal interpretation of “nature”
below was very different than you might
imagine.
"I was walking down the road with two
friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky
turned as red as blood. I stopped and
leaned against the fence, feeling
unspeakably tired. Tongues of fire and
blood stretched over the bluish black fjord.
My friends went on walking, while I lagged
behind, shivering with fear. Then I heard
the enormous infinite scream of nature."
What details can you See?
Do you Hear noise? Or does it
bring up a memory involving
sound?
What does the scene Taste
like? Or does it remind you of
something you can taste?
What do you Smell? Does it
bring up a memory involving
smell?
What can you Touch? Does it
seem bumpy, hard, smooth?
Vincent van Gogh: Starry
Night
How does it make you feel?
What do you See?
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Cool dark colors
night sky filled with swirling clouds
stars
bright crescent moon
Church steeple and village
Effect: sky keeps the viewer's eyes
moving about the painting, following
the curves
What do you Hear?
Calmness, rustle of trees, wind
What do you Taste?
What do you Smell?
Scent of trees, fresh air
What can you Touch?
Tree, grass
How does it make you feel?
Peaceful, calm
Vincent van Gogh: Starry
Night
Facts about the Painter and Painting
• oil painting that was created in June of
1889 while Van Gogh was in the Saint
Remy of Provence Psychiatric Hospital
One interpretation:
• The swirling brushstrokes represent Van
Gogh’s churning state of mind and spirit
• Finding light in darkness (of his own
mind)
• Artist is in chaos but finds joy and hope
Vincent van Gogh: Starry
Night
What do you See?
What do you Hear?
What do you Taste?
What do you Smell?
What can you Touch?
How does it make you feel?
Migrant Mother - Dorothea Lange
(1936)
Sample Introduction- Thesis
“The photograph depicts a family suffering from extreme poverty, but it also
demonstrates the determination of a mother to do her best to care for her
children and endure through difficult times”
Migrant Mother - Dorothea Lange (1936)
Sample Paragraphs –Sensory Details
Sample Supporting Paragraphs
Based on Photograph
Migrant Mother - Dorothea Lange (1936)
Sample Conclusion Based on
Photograph
Migrant Mother - Dorothea Lange
(1936)
75 Readings Plus
James Baldwin’s “Fifth Avenue Uptown”
Judith Cofer “A Partial Remembrance of a Puerto Rican
Childhood”
Homework - Read
• Draft of Descriptive Essay on Painting
or Photograph
• Brainstorming Sheet
Due Next Week

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