Chapter 15 Power Point

Report
Musical Theatre
Chapter 15
What You Will Learn

Identify milestones in the development of the
Broadway musical

Name composers of classic Broadway musicals

Analyze and evaluate a Broadway musical
Vocabulary

Operettas

Broadway musical

Vaudeville

Dialogue

Repertoire

Monologue

Motive
Musician Profiles
Alain Boublil
Audra McDonald
Claude-Michel Schonberg
An Introduction to Musical theatre

During the 1800’s the evolution of opera split

Germany – lengthy heroic operas

Paris and Vienna – lighter more sentimental comic opera

Operettas:
 stage

plays with songs and dance interspersed with spoken lines
The birth of the Broadway musical:
 Operettas
A
came to America and became the Broadway Musical:
dramatic stage form that combines the arts of acting and singing
 Uniquely
American
 Forerunners include operettas, minstrel shows, and vaudeville:
 An
early stage variety show that included songs, dances, and comedy skits
George M. Cohan

One of the first composers of Broadway musical

His first hit show was Little Johnny Jones (1904)

“Give My Regards to Broadway,” a song from that show
became a classic

It contained the first ever reference to Broadway as a
synonym for musical theater
The Classic Broadway Musical

In the 1920’s the musical continued to develop

Emphasis on music but there was more emphasis on
the story

Richer plot lines

More attention to dialogue:
 The
spoken lines of a play or musical

George Gershwin – Lady Be Good

Jerome Kern – Show Boat

Cole Porter – Anything Goes

Before World War II musicals reflected optimism – good will win over
evil

After World War II the musical further developed

My Fair Lady – Lerner and Loewe

The Sound of Music – Rodgers and Hammerstein

West Side Story – Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim

These musicals added many songs to the repertoire:


An inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musician
During the latter part of the 20th century musicals began
addressing darker more serious themes

John Kander and Fred Ebb = Chicago and Cabaret
From Broadway to Hollywood

West Side Story (1961)


My Fair Lady (1964)


Five Oscars, including Best Picture
Cabaret (1972)


Eight Oscars, including Best Picture
The Sound of Music (1965)


10 Oscars, including Best Picture
eight Oscars
Chicago (2002)

six Oscars, including Best Picture
An International Trend

Andrew Lloyd Webber
In the 1970’s British and French teams
began contributing to musical theater

Andrew Lloyd Webber – British
 Cats,
Evita (with Tim Rice), The Phantom of
the Opera

Elton John – British
 The

Lion King and Aida, with Tim Rice
Claude-Michel Schonberg and Alain Boublil –
French
 Les
Miserables and Miss Saigon
Tim Rice
Elton John
Assignment
Activity 1, p. 345

Investigate a Musical

Select one of the musicals mentioned in this section, or choose another that you are
interested in. Using reliable online and library resources, research the story and music of the
show. Then complete the following:

What is the musical about? Write a brief summary of the setting, characters, and basic
plot. (10 points)

How would you characterize the music? Select one song from the musical and analyze how
the song conveys something in the plot or a character’s emotions. What mood does the
song portray? What message does the song convey? (10 points)
Musical theater Today

Broadway musicals are still popular today

Both old and new can be seen

Audra McDonald (b. 1970)

Born in Berlin, Germany

Attended Julliard

Won a 1994 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical for
Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Carousel

Also won Tonys for Master Class(1996), Ragtime(1998), and A Raisin
in the Sun (2004)

Youngest actor to ever win three Tonys
Les Miserables

One of the most popular musicals

Opened in London in 1985

Based on a novel by Victor Hugo written in 1862


Social commentary on the quality of life in France

Universal themes of human struggle, endurance, and redemption made it one of
the best-selling books in history

Several 19th century, including Puccini, considered making it into an opera
In 1980 Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schonberg adapted the work into
musical theatre
Activity 2 p. 347
“Prologue” CD 10:6

How would you describe the dialogue between Javert and
Valjean in the “Prologue”

Describe the differences in the quality of the voices based
on the attitudes that the characters communicate through
the music.

How does the composer use dynamics to intensify the
drama?

Lyrics on p. 348
Activity 3, p. 349
“What Have I Done?” CD 10:7

Monologue:

A dramatic speech or song delivered by one character in a
play

Make a list of the conflicts he is singing about.

How does the melody affect your thoughts about Valjean?

Do you think what he has done is forgivable? Why or why
not?
Activity 4 p. 350
“I Dreamed a Dream” CD 10:8

Which of the following best describes the melodic form of the song?

AAAA/ AABA/ ABBA/ AABC
 AABC


There are 3 distinct groupings of text that tell the story. Is the melody
the same, different, or modified in each of the 3 texts?
How does the song’s organization support the emotional content?


The intro sets up Fantine’s story. The A sections describe he hopeful dreams.
The darker B section foreshadows her downfall. The repeat of the A sections
emphasizes her tragedy of her story.
Think of a single word that describes the pathos depicted in the song.
Activity 5, p. 352
“One Day More” video

Determine how the addition of music enhanced the dram
and messages being presented


The accompaniment is tailored to each character’s
expression yet builds toward the climax of the song in a
unifying dramatic way
Why do you think the composer and lyricist chose to use
this format to end the story in Act I?

It reviews the characters’ place in the story as well as their
emotional and character traits. It also sets up the action of
Act II. The song is a dramatic and exciting way to end Act I.
Activity 6, p. 356
“On My Own” CD 10:9

Lyrics p. 353

Which letter diagram best designates the melodic form of
the song?

AAAA/ AABB/ AABC/ AABA
 AABA
Activity 7, p. 357
“Empty Chairs at Empty Tables” CD 10:10

Motive

A short musical idea that is easily remembered and helps
unify a composition
Review - terms

Broadway musical


Dialogue


Stage play with songs and dance interspersed with spoken lines
Repertoire


A short musical idea that is easily remembered and helps unify a composition
Operettas


A dramatic speech or song delivered by one character in a aplay
Motive


The spoken lines of a play or musical show
Monologue


A dramatic stage from that combines the arts of acting and singing
An inventory of compositions mastered and performed by a musician
Vaudeville

An early stage form that combines the arts of acting and singing/
Les Miserables
Who they were/what they
sang
Character

Sings “I Dreamed a Dream”

Fantine

Central character in Les Miserables

Jean Valjean

Sings “On My Own”

Eponine

Cosette’s mother

Fantine

Sings “Empty Chairs at Empty
Tables”

Marius

A police inspector

Javert

Sings “What Have I Done?”

Jean Valjean

Feels unrequited love for Marius

Eponine

Musicals of Andrew Lloyd Weber

Jesus Christ Superstar

The Phantom of the Opera

Cats

Evita

Broadway singer and
actor Audra McDonald
won recognition in a
revival of which Rodgers
and Hammerstein classic

Carousel

One of the first composers of
Broadway musicals


George M. Cohan
One composer who emerged
during the 1920’s as a composer
of Broadway musicals

George Gershwin

The British composer who
collaborated with Tim Rice to
create The Lion King


Elton John
French composers ClaudeMichel Schonberg and Alain
Boublil wrote…


West Side Story (1961)


5 Oscars, including Best Picture
Cabaret (1972)


8 Oscars, including Best Picture
The Sound of Music (1965)


10 Oscars, including Best Picture
My Fair Lady (1964)


Les Miserables
8 Oscars
Chicago (2002)

6 Oscars, including Best Picture
What characteristics have made Les
Miserables a popular and successful musical?

Universal themes of human struggle

Endurance

Redemption

Drama of the plot

Emotional expression of the music
What were some of the entertainment forms that
contributed to the development of the Broadway musical?
How did the Broadway musical change over the years?



Predecessors of the Broadway musical

Comic operas

Operettas

Minstrel shows

Vaudeville
1920’s musicals

Emphasis on music

Richer plotlines

Carefully scripted dialogue
After WWII

Composer lyricist teams created classic musicals like My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, and West Side
Story

These musicals popularized show tunes

Musicals were mainly optimistic

During the latter part of the 20th century musicals began addressing more serious themes

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