Because of Winn-Dixie

Report
Beyond the Braille Code = = =
Teaching Vocabulary and Comprehension Strategies
to Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired
Anna M. Swenson
Braille Literacy Consultant
[email protected]
1
Because of Winn-Dixie
by Kate DiCamillo
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Interest Level: 4-6
Reading Level: 4.1
Cast of Characters
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Winn-Dixie
Opal
The Preacher (Father)
Otis (Pet Store)
Miss Franny Block
(Library)
Amanda Wilkinson
Gloria Dump
Sweetie Pie (age 5)
Dunlap & Stevie Dewberry
(Twins)
Results of the ABC Braille Study
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“Students who were introduced to more contractions
earlier in instruction performed better on reading
measures, such as vocabulary, decoding, and
comprehension.” Emerson, R.W., Holbrook, M.C., & D'Andrea, F.M. (2009). Acquisition
of literacy skills by young children who are blind: Results from the ABC Braille Study. Journal of
Visual Impairment & Blindness, 103, 610-624.
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By the end of the study, only half the students were
reading on grade level. Comprehension & vocabulary
were major areas of deficit.
Conclusion: The issue is not contractions, but rather the
need for high quality instruction in the full range of reading
processes.
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Whose job is it to teach reading?
Can we separate the braille code from the
teaching of reading for young children who
are learning braille?
WE ARE ALL TEACHERS OF
READING
Today’s Focus
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Vocabulary & comprehension
Case study of a braille reader
Middle elementary (grades 2-5)
Strategies that work in conjunction
with general education instruction.
Resources and References
(See electronic handout.)
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Beck, L., McKeown, M., and Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing
Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York:
The Guilford Press.
Fountas, C. and Pinnell, G.S. (2006). Teaching for
Comprehending and Fluency: Thinking, Talking, and
Writing About Reading, K-8. Portsmouth, NH:
Heinemann.
The Reading Teacher: Journal of the International
Reading Association
Key Principles in Effective
Reading Instruction
(Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)
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Read-alouds
Continuous text
High quality reading materials
Variety of texts
Large quantity of reading material
Choice
APH Early Braille Trade Books
Sunshine Kits 1 and 2
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Sets of early reading books
from The Wright Group
(Sunshine Series)
Labels for contracted and
uncontracted braille
On-line book info: reading
level, summary, contractions,
punctuation marks,
instructional activities
On-line data collection for
individual students.
tech.aph.org/ebt
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Sources of Free
High Quality Braille Books
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Seedlings “Book Angel Program”
www.seedlings.org
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National Braille Press “Read Books!
Program” www.nbp.org
**Braille Institute (Los Angeles) “Special
Collection” 1-800-272-4553
www.brailleinstitute.org
What About Context?
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Winn Dixie … came over to where me and
the preacher were sitting and cocked his
head, like he was saying, “What in the world
are you two doing out of bed …?”
“I became aware of a very peculiar smell, a
very strong smell.”
Three Tiers of Words
(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
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TIER 1: Basic words (e.g., come, mouse,
happy, sun)
TIER 3: Content area words (e.g.,
sarcophagus, meteorite, inflation)
TIER 2: High frequency words understood by
mature readers and found in a variety of
reading material. (e.g., gullible, cunning,
hideous, chaotic)
Choosing Tier 2 Words for Study
(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
Considerations:
 Importance & utility
 Conceptual understanding
 Instructional potential
Because of Winn-Dixie
Kate DiCamillo
That night, there was a real bad thunder storm. But what
woke me up wasn't the thunder and lightning. It was WinnDixie, whining and butting his head against my bedroom
door. … He just kept beating his head against the door and
whining and whimpering … he was shaking and trembling
so hard that it scared me. … But the preacher was still
confused. He just stood there, and Winn-Dixie came
barreling right toward him like he was a bowling ball and the
preacher was the only pin left standing …
The preacher lay on the ground rubbing his nose.
Finally, he sat up. He said, "Opal, I believe Winn-Dixie has
a pathological fear of thunderstorms."
Introducing Tier 2 Words
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How about dictionary definitions?
Student-friendly explanations
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Typical use
Everyday language
Examples
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Disrupt (dictionary): break up; split
Disrupt: to make it difficult for something to continue
easily or peacefully
Capable (dictionary): having power and ability;
efficient; competent
Capable 1: able to do one or more things well
Capable 2: describes someone who is able to do
one or more things well
“Bumping into Spicy Tasty Words
that Catch Your Tongue”
(Bauman, J., Ware, D., Edwards, E. , 2007)
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Motivation: Recognize the power of
emotional connections with words
Promote curiosity about words in & out of
school, in books & in conversations –
“Word Detective”
Increase our use of interesting words when
we talk and write with our students
Jen’s Words: “Five by Friday”
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Word detective
BrailleNote file: “New and Interesting
Words”.
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Brief daily discussions
Definitions in her own words
Personal words on spelling list
“New & Interesting Words”
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Clench: grab on something hard
Compassionate: nice and kind to
people
Essential: really important
Flabbergasted: really surprised
Hideous: gross and ugly
Muzzle: a dog nose
Word Web Template
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Source (where I heard or read the word):
Definition in my own words:
Sentence:
Synonyms:
Antonyms:
Other forms of the word:
Activities / Assessments
whimper melancholy barrel butt exception
1.
2.
3.
4.
Word associations
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What word goes with being allowed to stay up
late once in awhile? Why?
Have you ever …?
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When would someone butt someone else?
Applause, Applause!
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How would you like to be described as
melancholy?
Idea completion
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Jen barreled down the hallway because …
(Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
Vocab Recap
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Direct Instruction > Context Clues
Focus on Tier 2 words
Use student-friendly definitions
Motivate students to become “word
detectives”
Engage students in a variety of activities
that help them think deeply about words
Focus on Meaning
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“Reading is the construction of meaning.
Comprehending is not a product of
reading; it is the process.” (Pinnell & Scharer, 2003)
"The act of comprehending a text occurs
before, during, and after reading. “ (Fountas &
Pinnell, 2006)
Systems of Strategic Actions to
Sustain Processing
(Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)
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Solving Words (Decoding)
Monitoring and Correcting (at both word
and text levels)
Maintaining Fluency
Summarizing (Literal Comprehension)
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Basic Comprehension Checklist
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Before Reading
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During Reading
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Read the title
Ask about the pictures
Predict what the story might be about
Reread a part if it doesn’t make sense
Make a Mind Movie after each paragraph or page
Make personal connections
After Reading
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Reread the book until it is fluent
Retell the story in your own words and/or
Summarize the most important events/facts
Check your predictions. Were you right?
Storyboard: Elements of Fiction
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Characters
Setting
Problem
Events
Resolution
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Systems of Strategic Actions
for Expanding Thinking
(Fountas & Pinnell, 2006)
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Predicting
Making Connections
Inferring
Synthesizing
Analyzing
Critiquing
Analysis: Character Connections
Because of Winn-Dixie
Story Graph: Because of Winn-Dixie
(Barton & Sawyer, 2003)
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Why didn’t the author
just end with the party?
Why did she add the
thunderstorm?
How has Opal
changed from the
beginning of the party
to the end? (Inference)
“Talk to Your Book”
Reading Strategies Folder
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P = Prediction
C = Connection
I = Inference
Wow!
DU = Don’t
Understand
= Difficult Word
Assessing Comprehension
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Anecdotal notes
Rubrics
Tests / Quizzes
Informal Reading Inventories
Written responses
IEP Goal: Reading Comprehension
Jen will demonstrate comprehension of fiction
passages or texts by responding in one or more of
the following ways: retelling, answering questions,
summarizing, making connections, predicting, or
inferring.
Criterion: receives a rating of “3” or greater on a
comprehension rubric for at least two books per
quarter.
Documentation: Anecdotal Records; Rubric Chart
Rubric: Levels of Understanding
4: Independent understanding, including higher
level thinking (90-100%)
3: Solid understanding, with some support required
for higher level thinking (70-90%)
2: Emerging understanding, with support required
for both literal and higher level thinking (50-70%)
1: Minimal understanding, even with support (less
than 50%)
Anecdotal Notes
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Because of Winn-Dixie (Rating: 3)
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Good recall of events when reading silently
Predicted Preacher would remarry like
Jimmy Fargo’s dad (text-to-text connection)
With support, understood how title related to
major theme of book.
Informal Reading Inventories
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Purpose
Graded word lists (words in isolation)
Graded passages for oral and/or silent reading
Data collection
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Miscues
Reading Rate
Comprehension
Anecdotal observations
Scoring Guides: Independent, Instructional, Frustration
levels
Jen’s IRI Word Lists
(Highest level attained before frustration)
Grade
September
June
2
Primer: 75%
Second: 90%
(Instructional)
(Independent)
Second: 70%
Third: 85%
(Low Instructional)
(Instructional)
Third: 90%
Sixth: 90%
(Independent)
(Independent)
3
4
Jen’s IRI Reading Rates
End of
Grade
Genre
Rate
2
Passage
Level
First
Fiction
42 wpm
3
Third
Fiction
62 wpm
4
Fourth
Nonfiction
72 wpm
5
Fifth
Nonfiction
80 wpm
Jen’s IRI Comprehension
(Highest level attained before frustration)
** = Grade level comprehension
Grade
Passage
Level
Genre
Rating
Beginning 2
Preprimer
Fiction
Frustration
End 2
**Second
Fiction
Independent
End 3
**Third
Third
Second
First
Fiction
Nonfiction
Nonfiction
Nonfiction
Instructional
Frustration
Frustration
Instructional
End 4
Third
**Fourth
Nonfiction
Nonfiction
Independent
Instructional
Beaver = Bird?
Reading Response (unedited)
In the book called Winn-Dixie Opal didn’t have a
mother because she drank to much alcohol such as
beer and whine. She was really obsessed about
drinking. Then she ran away. When Opal’s mother
ran away the Preacher Opal’s dad was very
melancholy. Opal also was feeling doleful when her
mother left. Opal and the Preacher are hoping
Opal’s mother will come back. The Preacher told
Opal ten things about her mother. She wrote them
down on a piece of paper that way she can think of
her mother. I predict at the end of Winn-Dixie Opal’s
mother will come back.
A Final Word on Comprehension
"I regard meaning as the 'given' in all
reading—the source of anticipation,
the guide to being on track, and the
outcome and reward of the effort.“
(Marie Clay)

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