Early Childhood Education in Pakistan How long can we ignore the foundations? Amima Sayeed January 29, 2013 Presentation Overview ECE – What & why Data Trends – Access & Learning Readiness Levels for ECE Policies & Experience Action & Implementation Borrowing from History Will we ever learn? 101 in ECE: What & Why? 80% of the brain is developed in early years i.e. from birth to age 8 Learning seems to peak between the ages of 3 and 10, but it continues throughout the lifetime. Between 10 and 18 months, a baby's emotions are developed. Emotions are closely connected with long-term memory. Child starts experiencing the world when s/he is 2 months old 101 ECE: Scope of Terminology ECE: looks at learning environment in school setting for 3 years and above especially till early primary i.e. class 3 or 4 an emphasis on education inputs, providing a child-centered, activity-based learning environment to promote children’s healthy development ECCE: looks at caring environment for young children within and outside school ECD: looks at enabling environment for young children with equal focus on health and nutrition along with education Katchi: a space set up for 3-5yrs children preparing them for Class 1 A Child’s Brain Develops Rapidly in Early Years Source:http://www.healthychild.ucla.edu 101 in ECE: Investment Rationale Rates of Return to Human Development Investment Across all Ages 8 Return Per $ Invested 6 Pre-school Programs School 4 R Job Training 2 PreSchool 0 School 6 Post School 18 Pedro Carneiro, James Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003 Age RTE Calling: 5yrs Old in School Pre-School Enrolment by Type of Schooling Govt. NSP Pvt. NSP Madrasah NSP Others Enrolment in % 100 80 60 45.4 40 20 0 6 2.9 0.3 0.1 21.2 10.2 0.6 0.3 3 4 26.2 15.2 0.9 0.4 5 10 0.6 0.2 5-Mar Age Group Note on Data: Figures are based on ASER 2012 Survey of 4,033 villages in 80,209 households across Pakistan. A total number of 57,503 children (47% girls, 53% boys) were found in 3-5yrs age group. Children not attending any preschool 3 to 5 yrs % Children 2011 100 91 80 87 60 2012 68 63 38 40 32 20 0 Age 3 ASER 2012 – National (Rural) Age 4 Age 5 Provincial Trends Percentage of out-of-school children Out-of-school children (3-5 years) -National (Rural) 100 78 80 60 49 53 56 61 40 20 0 Region ASER 2012 – National (Rural) 65 66 Readiness for School? Expressing Preferences Listening Comprehension 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 Boys Girls Rural Boys Girls Urban Intervention Boys Girls Rural 0.6 0.2 Boys Girls Urban Comparison 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 Boys Girls Rural Boys Girls Urban Intervention Boys Girls Rural Boys Girls Urban Comparison Note on Sample: Baseline SRA on 455 students (41% boys, 49% girls) in 4 districts of KPK – Save the Children 2012 Are Schools Ready? Teachers Appointment & allocation Attitude, interest, physical stamina & attributes Content knowledge and pedagogy– learning, child development domains/ stages, active learning strategies Spaces Physical safety & security Learning environment Learning engagements Operations Budget Supervision Parental involvement & support Learning resources Developmentally Inappropriate Practices: Out of the frying pan, into the fire Out of School Children Trapped if born into illiteracy, disinformation and poverty No exposure to tools leading to critical thinking Societal trend of disrespecting child’s views and independence Economic pressures, forced and hazardous labour Family disharmony, experience of abuse In –school Children Hazardous physical environment Instruction not interaction or engagement If at all, unaware and illequipped teachers Labeling, profiling, bullying – set up for early failure Damning emphasis on writing & discipline! Monolithic systems Kills the innate creative potential and diversity ECE in Pakistan: What we have… National Curriculum aligned with the developmental domains Contextualized, consultative and research based Frameworks for classroom implementation in rural and urban areas for ECE Specific policies for ECE introduction, budgetary provisions and plans across Pakistan Balochistan Sector Plan Punjab ECE Strategy Social Protection & RTE Bill in KPK A fantastic mix of technical and grassroots expertise for Teacher Education, follow-up and support ECE Implementation Framework Supportive School Environment Competent Teacher Early Childhood Education Philosophy and Goals Supportive Policy Environments Parental Involvement in Learning ECE: What is promised (NEP 2009 & RTE) Recognition and strengthening of Katchi class as part of formal system and opening of Kachi/ECE classes in the public sector At least one year pre-primary education shall be provided by the State and universal access to ECE shall be ensured within the next ten years. Provision of financial and food support to children who drop out because of poverty at ECE Two year pre-service training to ECE teachers based on NCECE ECE: What we need to do! Pay heed to research & start implementing policies! Get the basics right - in conceptualization, prioritization, planning, budgeting, teacher preparation and supervision End the randomness – use of terms, introduction of textbooks, lesson plans, formulas, investment of & on resources Build capacities & spaces – thinking & planning, teachers, schools, community learning centres Connect – research & policy, school & community, numeracy/literacy with cognition & development Finally, Bring the Child back to the Centre!