How long can we ignore the foundations?

Report
Early Childhood Education
in Pakistan
How long can we ignore the foundations?
Amima Sayeed
January 29, 2013
Presentation Overview
ECE – What & why
 Data Trends – Access & Learning
 Readiness Levels for ECE
 Policies & Experience
 Action & Implementation

Borrowing from History
Will we ever learn?
101 in ECE: What & Why?

80% of the brain is developed in early years i.e.
from birth to age 8

Learning seems to peak between the ages of 3
and 10, but it continues throughout the
lifetime.

Between 10 and 18 months, a baby's emotions
are developed. Emotions are closely
connected with long-term memory.

Child starts experiencing the world when s/he
is 2 months old
101 ECE: Scope of Terminology

ECE: looks at learning environment in school setting for 3 years
and above especially till early primary i.e. class 3 or 4




an emphasis on education inputs, providing a child-centered,
activity-based learning environment to promote children’s healthy
development
ECCE: looks at caring environment for young children within and
outside school
ECD: looks at enabling environment for young children with
equal focus on health and nutrition along with education
Katchi: a space set up for 3-5yrs children preparing them for
Class 1
A Child’s Brain Develops Rapidly in
Early Years
Source:http://www.healthychild.ucla.edu
101 in ECE: Investment
Rationale
Rates of Return to Human Development
Investment Across all Ages
8
Return
Per
$
Invested
6
Pre-school Programs
School
4
R
Job Training
2
PreSchool
0
School
6
Post School
18
Pedro Carneiro, James Heckman, Human Capital Policy, 2003
Age
RTE Calling: 5yrs Old in School
Pre-School Enrolment by Type of Schooling
Govt.
NSP Pvt.
NSP Madrasah
NSP Others
Enrolment in %
100
80
60
45.4
40
20
0
6 2.9
0.3 0.1
21.2
10.2
0.6 0.3
3
4
26.2
15.2
0.9 0.4
5
10
0.6 0.2
5-Mar
Age Group
Note on Data: Figures are based on ASER 2012 Survey of 4,033 villages in 80,209
households across Pakistan. A total number of 57,503 children (47% girls, 53% boys) were
found in 3-5yrs age group.
Children not attending any preschool 3 to 5 yrs
% Children
2011
100
91
80
87
60
2012
68
63
38
40
32
20
0
Age 3
ASER 2012 – National (Rural)
Age 4
Age 5
Provincial Trends
Percentage of out-of-school children
Out-of-school children (3-5 years) -National (Rural)
100
78
80
60
49
53
56
61
40
20
0
Region
ASER 2012 – National (Rural)
65
66
Readiness for School?
Expressing Preferences
Listening Comprehension
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3
Boys
Girls
Rural
Boys
Girls
Urban
Intervention
Boys
Girls
Rural
0.6
0.2
Boys
Girls
Urban
Comparison
5.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4
Boys
Girls
Rural
Boys
Girls
Urban
Intervention
Boys
Girls
Rural
Boys
Girls
Urban
Comparison
Note on Sample: Baseline SRA on 455 students (41% boys, 49% girls) in 4 districts
of KPK – Save the Children 2012
Are Schools Ready?



Teachers
 Appointment & allocation
 Attitude, interest, physical stamina & attributes
 Content knowledge and pedagogy– learning, child
development domains/ stages, active learning strategies
Spaces
 Physical safety & security
 Learning environment
 Learning engagements
Operations
 Budget
 Supervision
 Parental involvement & support
 Learning resources
Developmentally Inappropriate Practices:
Out of the frying pan, into the fire
Out of School Children

Trapped if born into
illiteracy, disinformation and
poverty




No exposure to tools leading
to critical thinking
Societal trend of
disrespecting child’s views
and independence
Economic pressures, forced
and hazardous labour
Family disharmony,
experience of abuse
In –school Children






Hazardous physical
environment
Instruction not interaction or
engagement
If at all, unaware and illequipped teachers
Labeling, profiling, bullying –
set up for early failure
Damning emphasis on writing
& discipline!
Monolithic systems

Kills the innate creative
potential and diversity
ECE in Pakistan: What we
have…




National Curriculum aligned with the developmental domains
 Contextualized, consultative and research based
Frameworks for classroom implementation in rural and urban
areas for ECE
Specific policies for ECE introduction, budgetary provisions
and plans across Pakistan
 Balochistan Sector Plan
 Punjab ECE Strategy
 Social Protection & RTE Bill in KPK
A fantastic mix of technical and grassroots expertise for
Teacher Education, follow-up and support
ECE Implementation Framework
Supportive
School Environment
Competent
Teacher
Early Childhood Education
Philosophy and Goals
Supportive Policy
Environments
Parental
Involvement in
Learning
ECE: What is promised
(NEP 2009 & RTE)

Recognition and strengthening of Katchi
class as part of formal system and opening
of Kachi/ECE classes in the public sector
At least one year pre-primary education shall be
provided by the State and universal access to
ECE shall be ensured within the next ten years.
 Provision of financial and food support to
children who drop out because of poverty at
ECE
 Two year pre-service training to ECE teachers
based on NCECE

ECE: What we need to do!





Pay heed to research & start implementing policies!
Get the basics right - in conceptualization,
prioritization, planning, budgeting, teacher
preparation and supervision
End the randomness – use of terms, introduction of
textbooks, lesson plans, formulas, investment of &
on resources
Build capacities & spaces – thinking & planning,
teachers, schools, community learning centres
Connect – research & policy, school & community,
numeracy/literacy with cognition & development
Finally, Bring the Child back
to the Centre!

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